Hello Again Everyone!!
Without a doubt, Bulguksa Temple in Gyeongju is the most famous Korean Buddhist temple both in Korea and internationally. Not only is it a UNESCO World Heritage Site from 1995, but it also houses seven National Treasures, six Treasures, and Bulguksa Temple itself is considered a Historic Site by the Korean government.
Bulguksa Temple was first constructed in 528 A.D., which was also the first year that Buddhism was officially accepted by the Silla Kingdom (57 B.C – 935 A.D.) during the reign of King Beopheung (r.514-540 A.D.). The temple was built to appease the wishes of King Beopheung’s mother, Lady Yeongje, and his wife, Queen Gi Yun. Originally, the temple was named Beopryusa Temple or Hwaeom Bulguksa Temple. Later, the temple was rebuilt by King Jinheung’s mother, Lady Jiso.
Then nearly two hundred years later, Minister Kim Daeseong started to rebuild Bulguksa Temple. According to the Samguk Yusa (“Memorabilia of the Three Kingdoms,” in English), Kim Daeseong built the temple to help pacify the spirits of his parents. However, before it could be completed in 774 A.D., Kim Daeseong died and the temple was completed by the Silla royal court. It was at this time that Bulguksa Temple was given its current name, which means “Buddha Land Temple,” in English.
Bulguksa Temple was expanded and renovated during the Goryeo Dynasty (918-1392) up until the early Joseon Dynasty (1392-1910), until all the wooden buildings at Bulguksa Temple were destroyed by fire by the invading Japanese during the Imjin War (1592-98). Bulguksa Temple was re-constructed in 1604. And in 1700, the original layout of the temple was completely restored. In about 200 years, over 40 renovations took place up until 1805. It was at this point that the temple fell into disrepair and was looted by robbers. Finally, from 1963-73, over a ten year period, the temple was restored to its former glory with twenty-four buildings being reconstructed.
The first structure to greet you, besides the Iljumun Gate at the entry, is the Cheonwangmun Gate just beyond the temple pond. The Cheonwangmun Gate houses four masterful statues of the Four Heavenly Kings.
Having passed through the Cheonwangmun Gate, you’ll come to the most recognizable part of the temple: the temple’s front facade. What makes this part of the temple so unique are the pair of stairs that once led up to the temple grounds but are now off-limits for preservation purposes. The set of stairs to the right is known as Cheongun-gyo (“Blue Cloud Bridge”) and Baekun-gyo (“White Cloud Bridge”). These dual bridge structures were originally built in 751 A.D., and they’re National Treasure #23. The bridges once led up to the Daeung-jeon Hall and are symbolic of passing from the earthly world to the spiritual world of the Buddha.
To the left are the Yeonhwa-gyo (“Lotus Bridge”) and Chilbo-gyo (“Seven Treasures Bridge”). These bridges are National Treasure #22. While smaller in size than the bridges to the east, these bridges were also built in 751 A.D. and are priceless because they are collectively the only known bridges to have survived fully intact from the Silla Kingdom.
Since you can’t climb these stairs anymore, you’ll need to pass to the right up a stone pathway. Once you enter the courtyard that houses the Daeung-jeon Hall, you’ll instantly notice two towering pagodas. The first of the two, and the one closer to you on the right, is Dabo-tap Pagoda, or “The Pagoda of Many Treasures,” which is National Treasure #20. Probably the most famous pagoda in all of Korea was first built in around 751 A.D. during the construction of the temple. And to the left of Dabo-tap Pagoda is Seokga-tap Pagoda, which also dates back to 751 A.D., and means “Seokgamoni-bul Pagoda,” in English. This simplistic pagoda is National Treasure #21.
Behind these two stone pagodas is the temple’s main hall: the Daeung-jeon Hall. The hall was reconstructed in 1765 after it was destroyed by fire in 1593 by the Japanese during the Imjin War (1592-98). The shrine hall is Treasure #1744, and it houses a large statue of the Buddha, Seokgamoni-bul, inside. To the rear of the main hall is the Museol-jeon Hall. The word “museol” means “non-lecturing” in English, while “jeon” means hall. The name of the temple highlights how language sometimes fails and the Buddha’s teachings are beyond words. Rebuilt in 1910, and then later restored in 1973, there’s a beautifully crowned Jijang-bosal (The Bodhisattva of the Afterlife) inside with a staff in his hand.
To the rear of the Museol-jeon Hall, and up a steep set of stairs, is the Gwaneum-jeon Hall. Inside is housed a slender statue of the Bodhisattva of Compassion with a mural of the Bodhisattva with a thousand hands. These hands are symbolic of Gwanseeum-bosal reaching out to those in need. It’s also from this vantage point that you get an amazing view of the lower courtyard that houses the Daeung-jeon Hall below.
Through a doorway to the left, and down an equally steep set of stairs that gained you admittance to the courtyard where the Gwaneum-jeon Hall is housed, is the Biro-jeon Hall. Housed inside this shrine hall is Birojana-bul (The Buddha of Cosmic Energy). The statue of Birojana-bul dates back to the 9th century and is National Treasure #26. Seated 1.77 metres in height, Birojana-bul is making the mudra of the Diamond Fist. Still in the same courtyard, but to the far left, is a Sari-tap. This beautiful stone structure is believed to date back to the Goryeo Dynasty (918-1392). While damaged by the Japanese, the Sari-tap was eventually returned to the Korean peninsula in the 1930s. The stupa is Korean Treasure #61, and it purportedly houses either the remains of eight monks or the remains of King Heongang’s Queen (the king’s reign was from 875-886 A.D.).
The final building in the upper courtyard is the Nahan-jeon Hall. Housed inside this hall are sixteen wooden statues of the Nahan who were the Disciples of the Historical Buddha). Surrounding the hall are hundreds of stone cairns of all sizes that visitors have left behind for good luck.
Descending down an easier set of stairs than the former two, you’ll be greeted by the Geukrak-jeon Hall, which rests parallel, and to the left of the Daeung-jeon Hall, in a courtyard of its own. Out in front of the hall is a golden pig that you can rub for good luck. Housed inside this hall is a statue of Amita-bul that’s National Treasure #27. If you look close enough inside this hall, you’ll see an older style Dragon Ship of Wisdom, as well as a wooden relief of a golden pig, as well.
Admission to the temple for adults is 6,000 won and for children, ages 8 to 12, it’s 3,000 won. For teenagers, ages 13 to 18, it’s 4,000 won. And if you drive, parking at Bulguksa Temple costs 1,000 won.
HOW TO GET THERE: From the Gyeongju Intercity Bus Terminal, you can take either Bus #10 or #11 that goes directly to Bulguksa Temple. The ride takes about one hour in length to get to the temple.
OVERALL RATING: 10/10. Bulguksa Temple, alongside Tongdosa Temple and Haeinsa Temple, are the top three temples in all of Korea to visit. Like the two former temples, Bulguksa Temple is also a UNESCO Heritage Site. It has an amazing seven national treasures like Dabo-tap Pagoda, Seokga-tap Pagoda, the pair of bridges along the front facade of the temple, and shrine hall statues dedicated to Amita-bul (The Buddha of the Western Paradise) and Birojana-bul (The Buddha of Cosmic Energy). There is so much to see and enjoy at this amazing temple in Gyeongju, so take your time and soak it all in. Enjoy all this majestic temple has to offer. It truly is a one-off.
Outside the main courtyard.Dabo-tap Pagoda.Seokga-tap Pagoda.The Daeung-jeon Hall.The steep stairs that lead up to the Gwaneum-jeon Hall.The amazing view from the Gwaneum-jeon Hall courtyard.A look at Birojana-bul (National Treasure #26)Just in front of the Nahan-jeon Hall during Buddha’s Birthday celebrations.The highly photogenic front facade at Bulguksa Temple.
PARK Won-soon, the mayor of Seoul and the 2nd most influential person after President Moon Jae-in, took his own life on July 9 after a sexual harassment complaint by his ex-secretary was filed a day earlier. First elected mayor of Korea's capital in 2011 in a by-election, Park was reelected in 2014 and 2016, with two years left in his term. Park was also expected to run for presidency in 2022 for the current ruling Democratic Party of Korea.
An irony is that long time civic activist Park gained his reputation after winning Korea's first sexual harassment case in 1998 as a lawyer for a female assistant professor , which led to Female Rights Activist of the Year award for Park. Another blck eye for the ruling party whose Mayor of Busan, Korea's 2nd largest city, resigned three months ago over sexual offense against his secretary, and whose Governor of Chungnam Province is currently serving in jail on sexual assaults against, again, his secretary. A controversy arose over an extravagant mortuary set up by the City of Seoul for use until the funeral on July 13 . "Why tax payer's money for sex offender? vs. "Why not for Park's 10 year dedication for Seoul ?"
Seoul became the capital of Korea 626 years ago after a military coup in 1388 by General Lee Sung-gye who defied his king's order to attack the emerging Ming dynasty in China. Gen Lee changed the country name from Koryo to Chosun, and moved the capital from Kaesong, just above DMZ where Kim Jong-un recently blew up the N-S Liaison Office, to Seoul in 1394 because Lee valued the advantage of a big river around Seoul. Lee built his palace where it still stands in the center of Seoul. The name Chosun is still alive as North Korea calls its country Democratic Republic of Chosun People. Yep. North Korea is a democratic nation just like a mosquito is a bird.
70th Anniversary of the Korean War: North Korea isn’t Going Anywhere; It’s Pretty Stable (Unfortunately)
My argument, in brief, is that North Korea is actually quite stable. Hence the answer to the symposium question – would Korea be re-unified by 2025 – is a resounding ‘no.’ Here is a brief Twitter thread which summarizes my argument.
North Korea faces little pressure internally – Kim has consolidated power quite nicely; elites are quiescent; there’s never been a popular revolt – and externally – China is unwilling to cut NK off; nukes give NK deterrence against regime change. The sanctions are tough, but Northern elites have been pushing the costs of them onto their population for decades. They won’t bring down or substantially change the DRPK system.
So we are stuck. We can try to negotiate, and we should, but the last few years’ flailing shows how hard that is. The stalemate is quite persistent.
The full essay follows the jump:
On this 70th anniversary of the Korean War, I believe the division of the Korean peninsula will persist through 2025. North Korea’s elite opposes unification – they would lose their privileges and likely face harsh retribution – and they face little pressure to change:
1. Internal Pressure?: Supreme leader Kim Jong Un has successfully entrenched himself as monarch.
Autocracies are most susceptible to change during leadership transitions. Most of have no clear rules for succession. Even classical monarchies routinely suffered from jockeying among various bloodline claimants.
North Korea most recently went through such a transition in 2011-2012, when Kim’s father passed. Kim was, at the time, young and inexperienced. He lacked the cronyist relations which bolstered his grandfather and (less so) father’s rule. He had no direct experience in the two most important institutions of the regime – the party and the army. Nonetheless, he was not eliminated or made a figurehead.
Any challengers by this point have likely been killed or removed. His father’s pallbearers, it has been widely noted, are all out of power now. Also, there has never been an internal popular revolt akin to Arab Spring or the Velvet Revolution.
So Kim likely faces little internal challenge, and he has behaved ruthlessly, much as his father and grandfather before him, on the core issues of family control and regime survival.
2. External Pressure?: China can increasingly afford to ‘carry’ North Korea.
In the late 1980s, Soviet premier Mikhail Gorbachev ‘sold’ East Germany to the United States, because the Soviet Union was declining and Gorbachev was looking to retrench from Europe to save the Soviet system. China’s relationship with North Korea today is the opposite. China is rising; it can increasingly afford to carry North Korea and its dysfunctional economy as a part of its larger regional ambitions.
China is the only external actor with any real influence over North Korea, and it opposes Korean unification. A united Korea would likely be led by the more functional South and therefore tilt toward the democratic world. Hence Beijing’s economic ability and political desire to keep North Korea intact mean little external pressure on the regime to change.
3. Coercion?: Not with a Nuclear Missile Shield
At home, Kim has disciplined and bought off the party and the military. Abroad, so long as he grooms the China relationship properly, he will not face a regime-threatening quarantine of his economy. But regime change by force has always been another, however frightening, possibility. US President George Bush put North Korea on the ‘axis of evil,’ and President Donald Trump threatened fire and fury.
But this possibility is now nearly foreclosed too. The North has successfully developed a basic nuclear warhead and an intercontinental ballistic missile. It can now directly deter the United States via nuclear weapons. This all but precludes offensive US military action. So long as Kim exercises a minimum of caution – not stumbling into an accidental war with the Americans – the North is safe on this front too.
Other scenarios are even more far-fetched than the above discussion. For example, all the above scenarios assume North Korea pressured, or otherwise collapsing, into South Korean-led unification. But could North Korea lead a unity project? Almost certainly not. Southern citizens would fight the loss of their freedoms, and the North probably could not even absorb the South without bringing down its own highly stylized internal system.
The only remaining possibility for regime crisis is the premature death of Kim, which would immediately raise the issues of power transition and change discussed in point 1 above. Kim’s health is poor; his father died suddenly of a heart attack; and there is no obvious successor at the moment, as Kim’s children are too young. But assuming that Kim does the minimum necessary to stay alive and cogent, North Korea appears quite stable right now.Robert E Kelly
Department of Political Science & Diplomacy
Pusan National University
In this free lesson, we will cover the full list of countries in Korean.
This list of country names will be extremely valuable when learning the Korean language. If you plan to have conversations in Korean or just learn the language for fun, you will for sure be asked about where you are from.How to Use this List of Country Names
We’ve already learned how to introduce yourself in Korean. And as you may know through that lesson, as well as your other international experiences, where you come from is often part of the introduction process.
The next time you get asked, you will easily be able to tell your new Korean friends where you’re from. And you’ll also be able to understand when your other international friends tell you in Korean where they’re from!
We’ve divided the countries into categories based on the continent. They are listed in alphabetical order in English, with the Korean words next to them.Languages in Korean
In many cases, you can express the languages of these countries by adding an 어 (eo) to the end of the country names. For example, the word for Japan is 일본 (ilbon). If you are learning the Japanese language, you are learning 일본어 (ilboneo).
Similarly, Korea is 한국 (hanguk). If you are learning the Korean language, you’re learning 한국어 (hangugeo)!Europe (유럽)
Here are the European country names in Korean. Some of the words in Korean may sound like the country name, and others may not.EnglishKoreanAlbania알바니아 (albania)Andorra안도라 (andora)Armenia아르메니아 (areumenia)Austria오스트리아 (oseuteuria)Azerbaijan아제르바이잔 (ajereubaijan)Belarus벨라루스 (bellaruseu)Belgium벨기에 (belgie)Bosnia and Herzegovina보스니아 헤르체고비나 (boseunia hereuchegobina)Bulgaria불가리아 (bulgaria)Croatia크로아티아 (keuroatia)Cyprus키프로스 (kipeuroseu)Czech Republic체코 (cheko)Denmark덴마크 (denmakeu)Estonia에스토니아 (eseutonia)Finland핀란드 (pillandeu)France프랑스 (peurangseu)Georgia그루지아 (geurujia)Germany독일 (dogil)Greece그리스 (geuriseu)Hungary헝가리 (heonggari)Iceland아이스란드 (aiseurandeu)Ireland아일랜드 (aillaendeu)Italy이탈리아 (itallia)Kazakhstan카자흐스탄 (kajaheuseutan)Latvia라트비아 (rateubia)Liechtenstein리히텐슈타인 (rihitensyutain)Lithuania리투아니아 (rituania)Luxembourg룩셈부르크 (ruksembureukeu)Malta몰타 (molta)Moldova몰도바 (moldoba)Monaco모나코 (monako)Montenegro몬테네그로 (montenegeuro)Netherlands네덜란드 (nedeollandeu)North Macedonia마케도니아 공화국 (makedonia gonghwaguk)Norway노르웨이 (noreuwei)Poland폴란드 (pollandeu)Portugal포르투갈 (poreutugal)Romania루마니아 (rumania)Russia러시아 (reosia)San Marino산마리노 (sanmarino)Serbia세르비아 (sereubia)Slovakia슬로바키아 (seullobakia)Slovenia슬로베니아 (seullobenia)Spain스페인 (seupein)Sweden스웨덴 (seuweden)Switzerland스위스 (seuwiseu)Turkey터키 (teoki)Ukraine우크라이나 (ukeuraina)United Kingdom영국 (yeongguk)Asia (아시아)
Here is a list of the Asian country names in Korean.EnglishKoreanAfghanistan아프가니스탄 (apeuganiseutan)Bahrain바레인 (barein)Bangladesh방글라데시 (banggeulladesi)Bhutan부탄 (butan)Brunei브루나이 (beurunai)Cambodia캄보디아 (kambodia)China중국 (jungguk)India인도 (indo)Indonesia인도네시아 (indonesia)Iran이란 (iran)Iraq이라크 (irakeu)Israel이스라엘 (iseurael)Jordan요르단 (yoreudan)Japan일본 (ilbon)Kuwait쿠웨이트 (kuweiteu)Kyrgyzstan키르기스스탄 (kireugiseuseutan)Laos라오스 (raoseu)Lebanon레바논 (rebanon)Malaysia말레시아 (mallesia)Maldives몰디브 (moldibeu)Mongolia몽골 (monggol)Myanmar미얀마 (miyanma)Nepal네팔 (nepal)North Korea북한 (bukan)Oman오만 (oman)Pakistan파키스탄 (pakiseutan)Palestine팔레스타인 (palleseutain)Philippines필리핀 (pillipin)Qatar카타르 (katareu)Saudi Arabia사우디아라비아 (saudiarabia)Singapore싱가포르 (singgaporeu)South Korea대한민국 (daehanminguk)Sri Lanka스리랑카 (seurirangka)Syria시리아 (siria)Taiwan대만 (daeman)Tajikistan타지키스탄 (tajikiseutan)Thailand태국 (taeguk)Turkmenistan투르크메니스탄 (tureukeumeniseutan)United Arab Emirates (UAE)아랍에미리트 (arabemiriteu)Uzbekistan우즈베키스탄 (ujeubekiseutan)Vietnam베트남 (beteunam)Yemen예멘 (yemen)
Here are the African country names in Korean.
Algeria → 알제리 (aljeri)
Angola → 앙골라 (anggolla)
Benin → 베냉 (benaeng)
Botswana → 보츠와나 (bocheuwana)
Burkina Faso → 부르키나파소 (bureukinapaso)
Burundi → 부룬디 (burundi)
Cabo Verde → 카보베르데 (kabobereude)
Cameroon → 카메룬 (kamerun)
Central African Republic → 중앙아프리카 공화국 (jungangapeurika gonghwaguk)
Chad → 차드 (chadeu)
Comoros → 코모로 (komoro)
Congo, Democratic Republic of the → 콩고 민주 공화국 (konggo minju gonghwaguk)
Congo, Republic of the → 콩고 공화국 (konggo gonghwaguk)
Cote d’Ivoire → 코트디부아르 (koteudibuareu)
Djibouti → 지부티 (jibuti)
Egypt → 이집트 (ijipteu)
Equatorial Guinea → 적도 기니 (jeokdo gini)
Eritrea → 에리트레아 (eriteurea)
Ethiopia → 에티오피아 (etiopia)
Gabon → 가봉 (gabong)
Gambia → 감비아 (gambia)
Ghana → 가나 (gana)
Guinea → 기니 (gini)
Guinea-Bissau → 기니비사우 (ginibisau)
Kenya → 케냐 (kenya)
Lesotho → 레소토 (resoto)
Liberia → 라이베리아 (raiberia)
Libya → 리비아 (ribia)
Madagascar → 마다가스카르 (madagaseukareu)
Malawi → 말라위 (mallawi)
Mali → 말리 (malli)
Mauritania → 모리타니 (moritani)
Mauritius → 모리셔스 (morisyeoseu)
Morocco → 모로코 (moroko)
Mozambique → 모잠비크 (mojambikeu)
Namibia → 나미비아 (namibia)
Niger → 니제르 (nijereu)
Nigeria → 나이지리아 (naijiria)
Rwanda → 르완다 (reuwanda)
Sao Tome and Principe → 상투메프린시페 (sangtumepeurinsipe)
Senegal → 세네갈 (senegal)
Seychelles → 세이셸 (seisyel)
Sierra Leone → 시에라레온 (sierareon)
Somalia → 소말리아 (somallia)
South Africa → 남아프리카 공화국 (namapeurika gonghwaguk)
South Sudan → 남수단 (namsudan)
Sudan → 수단 (sudan)
Tanzania → 탄자니아 (tanjania)
Togo → 토고 (togo)
Tunisia → 튀니지 (twiniji)
Uganda → 우간다 (uganda)
Zambia → 잠비아 (jambia)
Zimbabwe → 짐바브웨 (jimbabeuwe)Americas (아메리카)
Here is how you say the country names of North, Central, and South America in Korean.
Antigua and Barbuda → 앤티가바부다 (aentigababuda)
Argentina → 아르헨티나 (areuhentina)
Bahamas → 바하마 (bahama)
Barbados → 바베이도스 (babeidoseu)
Belize → 벨리즈 (bellijeu)
Bolivia → 볼리비아 (bollibia)
Brazil → 브라질 (beurajil)
Canada → 캐나다 (kaenada)
Chile → 칠레 (chille)
Colombia → 콜롬비아 (kollombia)
Costa Rica → 코스타리카 (koseutarika)
Cuba → 쿠바 (kuba)
Dominica → 도미니카 (dominika)
Dominican Republic → 도미니카 공화국 (dominika gonghwaguk)
Ecuador → 에콰도르 (ekwadoreu)
El Salvador → 엘살바도르 (elsalbadoreu)
Grenada → 그레나다 (geurenada)
Guatemala → 과테말라 (gwatemalla)
Guyana → 가이아나 (gaiana)
Haiti → 아이티 (aiti)
Honduras → 온두라스 (onduraseu)
Jamaica → 자메이카 (jameika)
Mexico → 멕시코 (meksiko)
Nicaragua → 니카라과 (nikaragwa)
Panama → 파나마 (panama)
Paraguay → 파라과이 (paragwai)
Peru → 페루 (peru)
Saint Kitts and Nevis → 세인트키츠네비스 (seinteukicheunebiseu)
Saint Lucia → 세인트루시아 (seinteurusia)
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines → 세인트빈센트그레나딘 (seinteubinsenteugeurenadin)
Suriname → 수리남 (surinam)
Trinidad and Tobago → 트리니다드토바고 (teurinidadeutobago)
Uruguay → 우루과이 (urugwai)
United States → 미국 (miguk)
Venezuela → 베네수엘라 (benesuella)Oceania (오세아니아)
Here are the country names of Oceania in Korean. Note that some names may be said in two different ways. For example, Australia can be 호주 (hoju) or 오스트레일리아 (oseuteureillia).
The former is the original Korean version, which is used most of the time. The latter is the spelling of the English version in Korean letters. You are free to use either one.
Australia → 호주 (hoju)
Fiji → 피지 (piji)
Kiribati → 키리바시 (kiribasi)
Marshall Islands → 마셜제도 (masyeoljedo)
Micronesia → 미크로네시아 (mikeuronesia)
Nauru → 나우루 (nauru)
New Zealand → 뉴질랜드 (nyujillaendeu)
Palau → 팔라우 (pallau)
Papua New Guinea → 파푸아뉴기니 (papuanyugini)
Samoa → 사모아 (samoa)
Solomon Islands → 솔로몬제도 (sollomonjedo)
Tonga → 통가 (tongga)
Tuvalu → 투발루 (tuballu)
Vanuatu → 바누아투 (banuatu)
Now you know the correct vocabulary for the various country names in Korean. These words are a foundational part of the language, so get used to hearing and speaking them. Studying country names is a great way to learn Korean.
If your country is missing us from this list, let us know and we will help you. Otherwise, tell us in the comments where you’re from – in Korean! We’d love to know where on the globe you are at.
The post Countries in Korean – The Complete List of Country Names appeared first on 90 Day Korean®.
Learn to read Korean and be having simple conversations, taking taxis and ordering in Korean within a week with our FREE Hangeul Hacks series: http://www.90DayKorean.com/learn
Please share, help Korean spread!