This is a continuation of the previous episode, where we learned about how to say "while" using 동안 and (으)면서. This time we'll be learning about how to use the ~다가 form.
Remember that this course goes in order, so start from the beginning if you're new. There will be 100 episodes in total once it's completed, and the last episode will go up before the end of this month.
The post Billy Go’s Beginner Korean Course | #95: Two Things at Once Part 2 appeared first on Learn Korean with GO! Billy Korean.—
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Most Sundays I offer free live Korean classes on my YouTube channel. Last Sunday's class was about the grammar form 아/어/etc. 하다. This grammar form is used to mean "to seem" or "to feel," and has several important uses when talking about the 3rd person.—
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In this lesson, we’ll cover everything you need to know about Korean conjugation.
We’ll explain what Korean conjugation is, how to use it, and when to use it.
Let’s go over some common Korean conjugations – and rules related to them – so that you can get kickstarted on creating your own, conjugated sentences!What is Korean conjugation?
Korean conjugations in Korean grammar determine the meaning, tense, tone, and mood of sentences. It’s important to learn conjugation as you progress in learning Korean.
For example, let’s say you’re going to use the verb “go” in a sentence. The base form is in Korean is:
Base Form: 가다 (gada) – to go
However, you need to change it to the present tense.
Conjugated verb: 저는 가요 (I go)
We’ve added 저는 (“I”) as the subject, and then conjugated 가다 (to go).
However, unlike in any other language, Korean grammar takes conjugation to another level. Korean conjugation isn’t limited to verbs. Other parts of speech such as adjectives can be conjugated.Are Korean conjugation rules different for verbs and adjectives?
Most of the conjugation rules for Korean verbs also apply to adjectives. Once you learn the Korean verb conjugation rules, it’ll be easy to conjugate adjectives.How many conjugations are there in Korean?
There are 40 basic verb endings but there are over 400 verb endings when all are combined. They are made up of the different Korean grammar categories such as the different tenses (past tense, present tense, and future tense), honorifics, and voices to name a few.How do you conjugate verbs in Korean?
Korean verb conjugation is pretty easy to do. All you need to do is to drop the 다 verb endings from the verb stem and then add the appropriate verb endings. The correct verb endings to be used when conjugating verbs are determined by the final vowel after dropping the 다 verb endings from the verb stem.
We’ll get more into the details of conjugations in Korean in awhile.What’s the common Korean verb conjugation?
The common Korean verb conjugation is the use of 아요 and 어요 which gives the Korean verb its polite and present tense form.
Let’s use the verbs 자다 and 먹다 as an example. These 2 verbs are both in their verb stem form.
As mentioned earlier, conjugations of verbs in Korean happens by dropping the 다 verb endings from the verb stem.
For the verbs 자다 and 먹다, we’ll need to drop the 다 verb endings which will make them:
자다 → 자
먹다 → 먹
If the final vowel after dropping 다 is either ㅏ or ㅗ, you’ll use 아요. But if the final vowel after dropping 다 is ㅓ, ㅣ, or ㅜ, you’ll use 어요. So for the 2 example verbs above, they’ll become
자 → 자요
먹 → 먹어요How important is it to learn Korean Conjugation?
When learning the Korean language particularly the Korean grammar, Korean conjugation is very important to learn. As mentioned earlier, it sets the tense, tone, and meaning of your sentences which are basically all essential elements you’ll need when communicating.
Koreans give emphasis to politeness in everything including their language. Korean conjugation will help you show your respect and politeness towards a person.
Once you get familiar with the different conjugations, it’ll be easy for you to convey and appear to be respectful and polite.Which part of the verb do you conjugate?
Before learning which part of the Korean verb we need to conjugate, we need to take note that each Korean verb, adverb, and adjective consist of two pieces: a stem and an ending. The first part is the stem and 다 is the ending. These are usually their dictionary form.
When you conjugate any word, you will drop the 다 and replace it with the conjugation. Whenever you conjugate a verb, you only need to think of your tense and tone. The conjugation doesn’t change for the first person, second person, multiple people, etc.
Let’s take a quick look at some common Korean verbs in their basic form or dictionary form!
These verbs are made up of a verb stem and a 다 ending.How to make the conjugation form of the verbs?
In addition to what we already know about Korean conjugation, there are many conjugations that come together with a small puzzle piece that connects the stem to the conjugation in the most natural way. Let’s look at some simple examples of this.
말하다 + -아/어 → 말해요
만나다 + -아/어 → 만나요
닫다 + -아/어 → 닫아요
가르치다 + -아/어 → 가르쳐요
As you can see, the puzzle piece slightly changes the verb stem it joins. Most of the time the verbs play nice with them, so the rules are easy to learn.How do I combine the verb stem and a conjugation?
Simply, when 아 meets 아, it drops out. And when 아 meets 오, they connect together into one syllable; for example, 보 becomes 봐. When the verb stem ends in a consonant after 아 or 오, 아 becomes its own syllable.
For all other verb stems, you connect them with 어. When the verb stem ends with 이 the 이 + 어 combination cooks up 여. Only the verb 하다 is different and turns into 해.
Some conjugations also require the puzzle piece 으 connected to stems ending with a consonant. (으)면, which we will introduce below, is one such conjugation. We’ll go over how to conjugate irregular verbs at a later time.
Common Korean conjugations
In this part of the lesson, we’ll be showing the different conjugations for 2 of the commonly used Korean verb 보다 and 만들다.
보다 and 만들다 are the dictionary form of the verbs “to watch or to see” and “to make”. They both are made up of a verb stem and a 다 ending.
Let’s go over how to conjugate these common Korean verbs so that you can immediately see how all this works!Conjugating 보다 (boda) “to watch/see”
Below is a table with the different conjugations for the verb 보다 (boda) following the different tenses (Past Tense, Present Tense, and Future) and tones.KoreanRomanizationEnglishTone 봐bwaI seeInformal 봐요bwayoI see (Present Tense)Polite/Neutral 봅니다bomnidaI seeFormal 봤어bwasseoI sawInformal 봤어요bwasseoyoI saw (Past Tense)Polite/Neutral 봤습니다bwasseumnidaI sawFormal 볼 거야 bol geoyaWill seeInformal 볼 거예요bol goyeyoWill see (Future Tense)Polite/Neutral 볼 겁니다bol geomnnidaWill seeFormal
The verb 보다 (boda) can also take other forms of conjugation. Let’s take a look at the table below to get familiar with them.Korean RomanizationEnglishTone 봐라bwaraSee!Informal Command 보세요boseyoSee!Polite Command 보십시오bosibsioSee!Formal Command 보자bojaLet's see Informal/Neutral 봅시다bopsidaLet's see Polite/Formal 보고 bogoI see, and 보면bomyeonWhen/if I see 볼 수 있어bol su isseoCan seeInformal 볼 수 있어요bol su isseoyoCan seeNeutral/Polite 볼 수 있습니다bol su isseumnidaCan seeFormal 볼 수 없어bol su eopseoCannot seeInformal 볼 수 없어요bol su eopseoyoCannot seeNeutral/Polite 볼 수 없습니다bol su eopseumnidaCannot seeFormal 봐야 해bwaya haeMust seeInformal 봐야 해요bwaya haeyoMust seeNeutral/Polite 봐야 합니다bwaya hamnidaMust seeformal 보고 싶어bogo sipeoWant to seeInformal 보고 싶어요bogo sipeoyoWant to seeNeutral/Polite 보고 싶습니다bogo sipseumnidaWant to seeFormal 보고 싶지 않아bogo sipji anaDon't want to see Informal 보고 싶지 않아요bogo sipji anayoDon't want to see Neutral/Polite 보지 않아boji anaNot see Informal 보지 않아요boji anayoNot seeNeutral/Polite 보지 않습니다boji anseumnidaNot seeFormal 보고 있어bogo isseoAm/are/is seeing Informal 보고 있어요bogo isseoyoAm/are/is seeing Neutral/Polite 보고 있습니다bogo isseumnidaAm/are/is seeing Formal 볼까bolkkaShall we see?Informal 볼까요bolkkayoShall we see?Neutral/Polite 봤더라bwatdeoraSaw itInformal Fact Declaration 봤던데요bwatdeondeyoSaw itNeutral/Polite Fact Declaration Conjugating 만들다 (mandeulda) “to make”
Below is a table with the different conjugations for the verb 만들다 (mandeulda) following the different tenses (Past Tense, Present Tense, and Future) and tones.KoreanRomanizationEnglishTone 만들어mandeureoI makeInformal 만들어요mandeureoyoI make (Present Tense)Polite/Neutral 만듭니다mandeumnidaI makeFormal 만들었어mandeureosseoI madeInformal 만들었어요mandeureosseoyoI made (Past Tense)Polite/Neutral 만들었습니다mandeureosseumnidaI madeFormal 만들 거야mandeul geoyaWill makeInformal 만들 거예요mandeul goyeyoWill make (Future Tense)Polite/Neutral 만들 겁니다mandeul geomnnidaWill makeFormal
The verb 만들다 (mandeulda) can also take other forms of conjugation. Let’s take a look at the table below to get familiar with them.KoreanRomanizationEnglishTone 만들어라mandeureoraMake!Informal Command 만드세요mandeuseyoMake!polite command 만드십시오mandeusibsioMake!formal command 만들자mandeuljaLet's make Informal/Neutral 만듭시다mandeupsidaLet's make Polite/Formal 만들고mandeulgo I make, and 만들면mandeulmyeonWhen/if I make 만들 수 있어mandeul su isseoCan makeInformal 만들 수 있어요mandeul su isseoyoCan makeNeutral/Polite 만들 수 있습니다mandeul su isseumnidaCan makeFormal 만들 수 없어mandeul su eopseoCannot makeInformal 만들 수 없어요mandeul su eopseoyoCannot makeNeutral/Polite 만들 수 없습니다mandeul su eopseumnidaCannot makeFormal 만들어야 해mandeureoya haeMust makeInformal 만들어야 해요mandeureoya haeyoMust makeNeutral/Polite 만들어야 합니다mandeureoya hamnidaMust makeFormal 만들고 싶어 mandeulgo sipeoWant to make Informal 만들고 싶어요 mandeulgo sipeoyoWant to make Neutral/Polite 만들고 싶습니다 mandeulgo sipseumnidaWant to make Formal 만들고 싶지 않아mandeulgo sipji anaDon't want to make Informal 만들고 싶지 않아요mandeulgo sipji anayoDon't want to make Neutral/Polite 만들지 않아mandeulji anaNot makeInformal 만들지 않아요mandeulji anayoNot make Neutral/Polite 만들지 않습니다mandeulji anseumnidaNot make Formal 만들고 있어mandeulgo isseoAm/are/is making Informal 만들고 있어요mandeulgo isseoyoAm/are/is making Neutral/Polite 만들고 있습니다mandeulgo isseumnidaAm/are/is making Formal 만들까mandeulkkaShall we make? Informal 만들까요mandeulkkayoShall we make? Neutral/Polite 만들었더라 mandeureotdeoraMade itInformal Fact Declaration 만들었던데요mandeureotdeondeyoMade itNeutral/Polite Fact Declaration
Success! You are now ready to start putting Korean conjugations to use in your Korean studies.
There are a lot of useful conjugations in here, so make sure you refer to this list often. In addition to these conjugations, there are many more you’ll later get to learn. You can also learn about Korean particles and how they fit into Korean grammar in general.
What Korean conjugation do you think is most useful? Let us know in the comments below!
The post Korean Conjugation – How to Use Verbs & Adjectives appeared first on 90 Day Korean®.—
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This posts contains affiliate links. I receive a percentage of sales, if you purchase the item after clicking on an advertising link at no expense to you. This will help keep the website running. Thanks, as always, for your support!Temple History
Janggoksa Temple, which means “Guardian Valley Temple” in English, is located on the western slopes of Mt. Chilgapsan (559.7) in Cheongyang, Chungcheongnam-do. Located in a valley, Janggoksa Temple was first established in 850 A.D. by Seon Master Chejing (804-880 A.D.).
It should be noted that Seon Master Chejing, who was posthumously awarded the title of Master Bojo, established Borimsa Temple in Jangheung, Jeollanam-do. Borimsa Temple was established in 860 A.D. ten years after the establishment of Janggoksa Temple. Borimsa Temple was made at the request of King Heonan of Silla (r. 857-861 A.D.). Borimsa Temple was one of the Gusan Seonmun, or “Nine Mountain Zen Gates” in English. According to legend, and one year after the passing of the monk Doui (?-825 A.D.) in 826 A.D., Doui’s disciples gathered. At this meeting, his disciples decided to proclaim their unity and form the Gusan Seonmun for their school of Buddhism. Eight of these nine sects were from the Great Chan Master Mazu Daoyi (709-788 A.D.) lineage. The Gajisan Sect was established by Chejing. For more on the Gusan Seonmun, check out David Mason’s website.
So before Borimsa Temple was established in 860 A.D., Janggoksa Temple was established probably as a remote meditation centre for the practice of Seon Buddhism which was growing in popularity at this time. Janggoksa Temple would grow to be a medium sized temple, and it would undergo several repairs throughout the years of its existence. However, most of the temple’s history is largely unknown except the large number of relics that remain at Janggoksa Temple from the Goryeo Dynasty (918-1392), which would indicate that the temple flourished at this time.
The first of the known repairs took place in 1777, which was followed in 1866, 1906. Additional repairs took place at Janggoksa Temple in 1960 after the temple was partially damaged during the Korean War (1950-1953). The temple was further expanded in the 1990’s with a newly constructed Samseong-gak Hall at Janggoksa Temple. Uniquely, Janggoksa Temple is home to two Daeung-jeon Halls: the Lower and Upper Daeung-jeon Halls.
In total, Janggoksa Temple is home to two National Treasures: The Iron Seated Bhaisajyaguru Buddha and Stone Pedestal of Janggoksa Temple (N.T. #58) and the Hanging Painting of Janggoksa Temple – Maitreya Buddha (N.T. #300). There are four additional Korean Treasures that can be found at Janggoksa Temple like the Upper Daeung-jeon Hall and the Lower Daeung-jeon Hall.Temple Layout
The first structure that greets you at Janggoksa Temple is the temple’s stately Iljumun Gate. Continuing up the country road for an additional four hundred metres, you’ll finally come to the front façade of Janggoksa Temple. You’ll need to pass under the Unhak-ru Pavilion to gain admittance to the main temple courtyard at Janggoksa Temple. Having mounted the uneven set of stairs that runs through the Unhak-ru Pavilion, you’ll notice the Jong-ru (Bell Pavilion) to your immediate left. The Jong-ru is filled with the four traditional Buddhist percussion instruments. But back at the Unhak-ru Pavilion, and situated on the second floor of the open pavilion, is a replica of the Hanging Painting of Janggoksa Temple (Maitreya Buddha). The original Gwaebul is National Treasure #300. The original Gwaebul was painted in 1673 by five monks for the long life of King Hyeongjong of Joseon (r. 1659-1674), his Queen, and the prince. The National Treasure stands an astounding 8.609 metres in height and 5.99 metres in width. The central image in the Gwaebul is Mireuk-bul (The Future Buddha). This central image is joined by six Buddhas and six Bodhisattvas. Mireuk-bul has a crown that’s adorned with the image of four Buddhas. Also, and rather interestingly, the overall aesthetic of the mural looks similar to a Vulture Peak mural.
Across the lower temple courtyard from the Unhak-ru Pavilion is the Ha Daeung-jeon Hall (Lower Daeung-jeon Hall). The Lower Daeung-jeon Hall was first constructed during the mid-Joseon Dynasty (1392-1910), and it’s Korean Treasure #181. The exterior walls to this historic main hall are adorned with simplified dancheong colours. Stepping inside the Lower Daeung-jeon Hall, you’ll uniquely notice that Seokgamoni-bul (The Historical Buddha), who is traditionally housed inside a Daeung-jeon Hall, is replaced by the image of Yaksayeorae-bul (The Medicine Buddha, and the Buddha of the Eastern Paradise). This statue of Yaksayeorae-bul that sits all alone on the main altar is officially known as the Gilt-bronze Seated Bhaisajyaguru Buddha of Janggoksa Temple. This gilt-bronze statue was first created in 1436, and it’s Korean Treasure #337. Yaksayeorae-bul holds a medicine case in his left hand while making a mudra (ritualized hand gesture) with his right hand. Joining the main altar statue inside the Lower Daeung-jeon Hall are a collection of three murals. To the left hangs a modern mural dedicated to Chilseong (The Seven Stars). And to the right hangs two additional murals. The first is a Vulture Peak mural, while the other is a Shinjung Taenghwa (Guardian Mural).
To the right of the Lower Daeung-jeon Hall stands Janggoksa Temple’s Myeongbu-jeon Hall. This hall is dedicated to Jijang-bosal (The Bodhisattva of the Afterlife) who appears on the main altar with a golden cap and green hair. The Myeongbu-jeon Hall is joined to the left of the Ha Daeung-jeon Hall by the Seolseon-dang Hall. Like the Lower Daeung-jeon Hall, the Seolseon-dang Hall is believed to date back to the mid-Joseon Dynasty. It was originally built as a meditation and lecture hall. It’s Korean Tangible Cultural Property #151. The exterior is unadorned, and it’s off-limits to visitors.
Climbing another set of stairs that will lead you up towards the upper courtyard at Janggoksa Temple, you’ll find three additional shrine halls. The first of these shrine halls is the Sang Daeung-jeon Hall (Upper Daeung-jeon Hall), which is the second main hall at Janggoksa Temple. The Upper Daeung-jeon Hall was first built during the Goryeo Dynasty (918-1392), and it’s Korean Treasure #162. The interior flooring of the Upper Daeung-jeon Hall is made of bricks, some of which have an eight petal lotus pattern on them. These seem to date back to Later Silla (668-935 A.D.). The central image inside the second main hall is the Iron Seated Vairocana Buddha and Stone Pedestal of Janggoksa Temple, which is Korean Treasure #174. Birojana-bul (The Buddha of Cosmic Energy) appears to have a small triangular face with long eyebrows and small eyes. The stone base that Birojana-bul sits upon was originally designed for a seokdeung (stone lantern), so the statue doesn’t quite seem to match its base. The statue of Birojana-bul is believed to date back to the mid-9th century. Rather strangely, this statue, and the accompanying main altar statues inside the Upper Daeung-jeon, were absent during my early morning visit; instead, just a cloth hat appeared on the pedestal instead of the historic statue.
Also conspicuously absent in the Upper Daeung-jeon Hall was the Iron Seated Bhaisajyaguru Buddha and Stone Pedestal of Janggoksa Temple, which is National Treasure #58. Like the statue of Birojana-bul that rests in the centre of the three statues inside the Upper Daeung-jeon Hall, all that remained of the iron statue of Yaksayeorae-bul (The Medicine Buddha, and the Buddha of the Eastern Paradise) was its stone pedestal and a cloth formed into a hat. The National Treasure dates back to the early 10th century. The stone pedestal is wide with holes on all four corners of it, indicating that it was once protected by a canopy. As for the statue itself, it has its right hand pointing to the ground, while the left rests on its lap. Originally, the iron statue of Yaksayeorae-bul had a medicine jar in its left hand, but it’s now missing.
The shrine hall next to the Upper Daeung-jeon Hall is the temple’s Eungjin-jeon Hall. A solitary statue of Seokgamoni-bul (The Historical Buddha) sits on the main altar on a large red silk pillow. Seokgamoni-bul is joined by a hundred Nahan (The Historical Disciples of the Buddha) statues. It’s also from the upper courtyard that you get a beautiful view of the valley where Janggoksa Temple is located, as well as the lower courtyard.
The last temple shrine hall that visitors can explore at Janggoksa Temple is the crowning Samseong-gak Hall which is situated at the highest point of the temple grounds. Up a side-winding pathway, you’ll be led up to the shaman shrine hall. Housed inside the Samseong-gak Hall are three murals dedicated to the most popular shaman deities at a Korean Buddhist temple. They are Dokseong (The Lonely Saint), Chilseong (The Seven Stars), and Sanshin (The Mountain Spirit). Of the three, it’s the Santa-esque mural dedicated to Sanshin that stands out the most for its artistic originality.How To Get There
From the Cheongyang Intercity Bus Terminal, you can catch a taxi to Janggoksa Temple. It’ll cost around 17,000 won and take about 25 minutes.Overall Rating: 8/10
It’s rare for a Korean Buddhist temple to house a single National Treasure, let along two. But not only does Janggoksa Temple house two national Treasures, it’s also home to two Daeung-jeon main halls, as well as four additional Korean Treasures. Janggoksa Temple is packed with originality and beauty; and while it’s lesser known among the major temples in Korea, it’s definitely worth a visit.The Jong-ru (Bell Pavilion) at the entry of the lower temple courtyard. Passing under the Unhak-ru Pavilion as you enter the lower temple courtyard with the Lower Daeung-jeon Hall straight ahead. The Lower Daeung-jeon Hall is Korean Treasure #181. The Gwaebul replica that’s housed inside the Unhak-ru Pavilion. The original is National Treasure #300. A look inside the Lower Daeung-jeon Hall. The main altar statue of Yaksayeorae-bul (The Medicine Buddha) is Korean Treasure #337. The main altar inside the neighbouring Myeongbu-jeon Hall. The view from the upper courtyard. The Upper Daeung-jeon Hall (left), which is Korean Treasure #162. To the right is Janggoksa Temple’s Eungjin-jeon Hall. A look inside at the Upper Daeung-jeon Hall. All three altar statues are absent including National Treasure #58 (far right pedestal) and Korean Treasure #174 (central pedestal). A look inside the neighbouring Eungjin-jeon Hall. The wandering path that leads up to the Samseong-gak Hall. And the Santa-esque painting dedicated to Sanshin (The Mountain Spirit).
This posts contains affiliate links. I receive a percentage of sales, if you purchase the item after clicking on an advertising link at no expense to you. This will help keep the website running. Thanks, as always, for your support!Introduction
If you look close enough at temple paintings, you’ll probably notice a menacingly grotesque face staring back at you. To the uninitiated eye these faces appear to be nothing more than ornamental. However, these paintings do in fact have a meaning. So what are their meaning? What do they look like? And why are they are adorning Korean Buddhist temples?Another Gwimyeon from Samgwangsa Temple at the base of the famed Daebo nine-story pagoda. Gwimyeon Design
The name of these ornamental designs that take up residence in and around temple shrine halls are known as Gwimyeon, or “Monster Masks” in English. These ornamental Monster Masks have noses with flaring nostrils. They can also have whiskers, horns, and sharp teeth. They have a broad, menacing grin, which invites you to look at them. Another name for a Gwimyeon is Nathwi. Nathwi is a compound word. “Nat” means “face” in English, while “Hwi” is a Chinese character that means “multi-coloured” in English.
There are two types of Gwimyeon. The first type holds nothing in its mouth, while the second can hold a variety of things in its mouth. Such objects are traditionally lotus vines, a lotus bud, or some sort of foliage. This helps to differentiate it from a dragon which traditionally holds a Cintamani (Wisdom Pearl) in its mouth. Of the two types of Gwimyeon, it’s more common to find one that has something in its mouth.
Also, if you look closely at the Gwimyeon image, you’ll notice that they are often times staring in different directions. If a Gwimyeon is by themselves, they will usually stare straight ahead; however, if they are in a group of two or more, they usually stare in different directions. The diversity of their gazes allow them to protect more space at the temple. And sometimes, if a Gwimyeon is by themselves, they will be cross-eyed. Like the group of Gwimyeon, this is done to help create two lines of vision instead of one, which doubles the amount of evil spirits that might be attempting to infiltrated the inner sanctum of the temple grounds.A pair of Gwimyeon that adorn the front doors of the Myeongbu-jeon Hall at Buseoksa Temple in Yeongju, Gyeongsangbuk-do. Gwimyeon History
The origins of Gwimyeon date back to India. Specifically, you can find this type of ornamental designs in Hindu temple architecture in India. The specific Gwimyeon iconography comes from the image of Kirtimukha. Kirtimukha is a Sanskrit compound word meaning “Fame Glory Face” in English: “Mukha” meaning “face,” while “Kirti” means “fame glory.” Traditionally in South Indian architecture, they are placed at the highest point or entry of a temple to create awe through their intimidatingly awe-inspiring appearance.
As a Kirtimukha, they appear as having a fierce monster face with large fangs and a wide-open mouth. The Kirtimukha, and the Gwimyeon for that matter, are often confused with a lion, or even a dragon. However, what differentiates Kirtimukha and Gwimyeon from lions and dragons is that Kirtimukha and Gwimyeon are eating or swallowing something in their mouths.A frightful older Gwimyeon painting found inside the Bukgeuk-jeon Hall at Anyangam Hermitage on the Tongdosa Temple grounds in Yangsan, Gyeongsangnam-do.
As for where they first can be found, Kirtimukha originate in a legend from the Skanda Purana (is the largest Mahāpurāṇa, a genre of 18 Hindu religious texts) and Shiva Purana (one of the eighteen major Purānas texts). The story of Kirtimukha starts with King Jalandhara. Through King Jalandhara’s extraordinary religious austerity, the king accumulated extraordinary powers. One day, through a prideful burst of anger, Kirtimukha sent forth his messenger, the monster Rahu, who represents materialism, mischief, fear, dissatisfaction, obsession and confusion. It was Rahu’s task to eclipse the moon. By doing this task, it would challenge Shiva. Shiva’s immediate response was to explode in a tremendous burst of power from his third eye. This created a ravenous demon lion onto the world. Terrified, Rahu begged for the mercy of Shiva. Benevolently, Shiva agreed. However, Shiva still had a famished demon lion to feed. To help solve this problem, Shiva suggested that Kirtimukha should feed upon the flesh of its own feet and hands. To help pacify and placate both Shiva and the demon lion, Kirtimukha ate his own body starting with its tail and stopping with only its face remaining. Shiva was pleased with this sacrificial gesture, so he named the messenger Kirtimukha (Fame Glory Face). Shiva also declared that Kirtimukha should always have its image placed at the entry of a temple as a symbol of sacrifice and devotion, as well as the very symbol of Shiva himself.
Through Buddhist and Korean influences, the Kirtimukha became more grotesque and colourful in appearance. Like the Kirtimukha, a Gwimyeon is meant to protect a temple from malevolent spirits. That’s why you’ll typically find Gwimyeon adorning the entryway to temple shrine halls or one of the five temple entry gates like the Iljumun Gate or the Cheonwangmun Gate.A colourful Gwimyeon that adorns the front entryway to the Daeung-jeon Hall at Pyochungsa Temple in Miryang, Gyeongsangnam-do. Gwimyeon Examples
You can find great examples of Gwimyeon throughout most Korean Buddhist temples. Some personal favourites of mine can be found at Geumsuam Hermitage and Anyangam Hermitage on the Tongdosa Temple grounds. Other great examples can be found on the Daeung-jeon Hall at Samgwangsa Temple in Busanjin-gu, Busan and the Myeongbu-jeon Hall at Buseoksa Temple in Yeongju, Gyeongsangbuk-do. A couple other great spots to see dazzling Gwimyeon are on the Daeung-jeon Hall at Pyochungsa Temple in Miryang, Gyeongsangnam-do and above the Cheongun-gyo Bridge (Blue Cloud Bridge) at Bulguksa Temple in Gyeongju.Conclusion
So the next time you’re at a Korean Buddhist temple, especially around the temple entry and the temple shrine hall entryways, have a look for the colourful Gwimyeon that adorn these parts of the temple grounds. They’re typically masterfully executed with vibrant colours. Just try not to be too surprised or scared when you see them looking back at you!Above the entryway to the Cheongun-gyo Bridge (Blue Cloud Bridge) at Bulguksa Temple. A Gwimyeon that adorns the Iljumun Gate at Geumsuam Hermitage on the Tongdosa Temple grounds in Yangsan, Gyeongsangnam-do.
Both 어릴 때 and 어렸을 때 are correct, but have different meanings. In fact, both of these can actually mean "When (I) was young."
However, there are situations where one of these can be used and the other can't.
Let's learn exactly what these phrases mean, as well as a bit more about the word 때 ("time").—
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