There are days as a photographer where you need to take some time and just explore with your camera. No shot lists, no deadlines, just exploration. The other day, I was in such a bad mood that I needed to get out and visit Seoknamsa. It’s a temple that I have not been to in a while.
Seoknamsa sits at the foot of Gajisan Mountain, just outside of Ulsan. It was a place that I used to visit from time to time when I first arrived as the temple is the start to the epic drive over Gajisan Mountain. I would stop at the rest stop in front of the temple and make sure that my motorcycle could make it over the mountain.
Years later, the area has seen some upgrades but it still has the same look and feel as it did so many years ago. I am pretty sure that the people are running the shops that are selling everything from stew to alcohol with a phallic cap for “stamina” are probably the same people from 17 years ago.Seoknamsa Temple in the Mist
I went out there to also check out the mountains and to see if they had started changing colours yet. Realizing that they are still a ways off, I decided to take a stroll up to the temple and clear my head. This is one of the nicer walks in the area, second only to Tongdosa just down the way.
As you walk up to the main temple area at Seoknamsa, you can hear the sounds of the rushing water through the canopy of green trees. I have heard of a term called “forest healing” but I never really experienced it. Walking up to the temple, it was like a weight had been lifted off my shoulders. I was simply walking with my camera and exploring not only the temple but my creativity as well.
As I approached the main temple area, I was greeted with the beauty of a waterfall and the sound of rushing water. The sights and sounds of this view need to be experienced at least once in a lifetime. As I approached the waterfalls, I noticed a bench next to the bridge, and I decided to have a seat and just sort of collect my thoughts there for a moment.Don’t Rush
It is times like these that as photographers, we tend to rush our way through and click away. This day was different. I didn’t care if I came away with nothing to show, this day was for me. I wanted the landscape to tell me how to photograph it, if that makes any sense.
I slowly made my way up to the main temple area the sound of the rushing water seems to drown out any other sounds, especially those of the few middle-aged couples speaking far too loudly given the location. The sound of the water rushing past the front gate of the temple seemed to be amplified as walked along the edge of the temple walls.
It is on walks like this that you notice the little details like how the moss grows between the rocks on the wall at you approach the temple. You hear the birds in the trees and the sound of the sand or gravel crunch under your foot as you enter the main area of the temple.
With Seoknamsa, I typically start at the far end of the temple and work my way back to the gates. I do this because the area at the far end of the temple is elevated and offers a great view of the main temple area. One misty and rainy days, this will give you some wonderful shots.Take Your Time Walking Back
Heading down the stairs behind the main hall, I wander along the paths between the temple buildings. I try to be as quiet as I can as I feel that this allows people to simply act normal and not focus on me taking pictures. Leaving the main temple area, I walk over the little bridge to the right as you leave the main gates of the temple. I follow the path back down to the main bridge exploring the different viewpoints along the way.
Back to the bridge, you can carefully venture down to the rocks to get a closer view of the waterfalls. This is where I spend a decent amount of time. On this particular occasion, I was wanting to capture some long exposure shots of the falls. So I used a 10-stop filter and took my time.
The shots at this time of day, even with the 10-stop filter on were relatively quick. For golden hour shots they can sometimes take up to 8 minutes but here it was around 50 seconds or so. It was a nice change and yielded some nice results.Adding a Little Mystery
When I arrived home, I started editing these shots. I wasn’t expecting anything amazing but I after seeing the mist in the shots, I wanted to add something to them that created a certain mood. I found that the presets that I picked up from Peter McKinnon worked well.
These presets have a certain mood to them that can be a challenge to find a suitable subject. Here, they fit the mood perfectly. I was also surprised that Peter actually “liked” the post that I made on twitter about the shots. That was a nice way to end the day of creative exploration.
The bottomline here is that sometimes you just have to explore and see where the day takes you. The COVID outbreak has had a negative impact on my livelihood here. My classes have been cancelled and events have been indefinitely postponed. Meaning that I have more time than money these days. The stress of which cripples my creativity. Hence, the need to get out and relieve some stress.
Hello Again Everyone!!
Seonamsa Temple means “Immortals Rock Temple,” in English. The name of the temple is in reference to a flat rock west of the temple where Taoist monks used to play baduk (Go). Seonamsa Temple is located on the western side of Jogyesan Provincial Park. And both Seonamsa Temple and Jogyesan Provincial Park are located in Suncheon, Jeollanam-do just like its famous neighbour: Songgwangsa Temple. There are two competing foundation stories as to how Seonamsa Temple was first built. One states that the missionary monk Ado-hwasang built a hermitage that was named Biroam Hermitage (The Buddha of Cosmic Energy Hermitage) in the same location as present day Seonamsa Temple in 529 A.D. And the second story relates how later, in 875 A.D., Doseon-guksa (826-898 A.D.) built a large sized temple that he named Seonamsa Temple. The temple was rebuilt once more by Uicheon-guksa (1055-1101) during the early to mid Goryeo Dynasty (918-1392 A.D.). It was rebuilt at this time on a much larger scale.
During the Imjin War (1592-1598), Seonamsa Temple was completely destroyed by fire in 1597. After this destructive war, which saw Korea’s most famous temples destroyed, Seonamsa Temple was rebuilt over an eight year period under the supervision of the monks Gyeongjam, Gyeongjun, and Munjeong in 1660. The temple was expanded in 1698, by the monk Yakhyu-daesa, when the Wontong-jeon Hall was built. And in 1707, the Seungseon-gyo Bridge, for which Seonamsa Temple is aesthetically so well known, was first started to be built. Once more, a large number of buildings at Seonamsa Temple were destroyed by fire in 1759. As a result, a fifth reconstruction took place at the temple headed by the monks Sangwol and Seoak in 1761. In total, 551 workers were used to help rebuild this famous temple at this time. And for a sixth time, the temple needed to be rebuilt after a fire completely destroyed the temple in 1823. The rebuild started in 1824, and it was the Daeung-jeon Hall, the Myeongbu-jeon Hall, the Seolseon-dang hall, and the Simgeon-dang Hall that were rebuilt. In total, some three hundred monks helped contribute to this rebuild.
Seonamsa was chosen as one of the head temples of the Honam region (present day Jeollanam-do and Jeollabuk-do), when a thirty temple system was initiated by the Japanese Governor-General of Korea from 1910-1945. More recently, and in 1948, the temple was damaged during the Yeosu–Suncheon Rebellion (Oct. to Nov., 1948). The temple was further damaged by the Korean War (1950-1953). And sadly, some of the temple land was sold during land reforms in 1952. And since 1992, a large scale plan has been initiated to restore Seonamsa Temple to its original 11th century form.
Seonamsa Temple is the headquarters to the second largest Buddhist Order in Korea, the Taego Order, which consists of 3,100 temples. In total, Seonamsa Temple is home to fourteen Korean Treasures, one Historic Site, one Scenic Site, one Natural Monument, and one National Folklore Cultural Heritage. And alongside six other mountain temples, or Sansa, in Korean, Seonamsa Temple is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
To get to Seonamsa Temple from the temple parking lot, you’ll first need to walk about a kilometre to the temple grounds. Along the way, you’ll come across budo-won (Stupa Fields) which are cemeteries for monks that once called Seonamsa Temple home. You’ll know that you’re getting closer to the temple, when you see two rainbow-shaped bridges to your left. The first of the two is the rather nondescript. But it’s from this first bridge that you get a great view of the beautiful Seungseon-gyo Bridge, which lies just a little further up the Seonamsa-cheon Stream. This beautiful bridge was completed in 1713 by the monk Hoan. It was built over a six year period, and it’s definitely one of the more beautiful bridges that you’ll find at a Buddhist temple in Korea. And if you look close enough, and under the base of the arching bridge, you’ll see a protective dragon statue. This dragon is meant to ward off evil spirits that might be attempting to enter the temple grounds through the meandering stream that runs next to Seonamsa Temple. It’s also from the stream bed that you get some amazing pictures of the bridge and stream in beautiful harmony. Seungseon-gyo Bridge is Korean Treasure #400.
The next site that you’ll come across at Seonamsa Temple is the Gangseon Pavilion. And just to the right, you’ll see a beautiful oval-shaped pond with an island of red spider lilies at its centre. Just a little further, and past this pond, and up a pretty good incline in the road, you’ll finally come to the Iljumun Gate at Seonamsa Temple. The current Iljumun Gate at Seonamsa Temple dates back to 1719, after the original was destroyed by fire in 1540. Interestingly, and if you look close enough at the tablets that adorn the backside of the Iljumun Gate, you’ll see that the Hanja (Sino-Korean characters) mean “water” and “sea/ocean” that are written on them. This was done to help prevent fires from burning down the temple like they had done so often before in Seonamsa Temple’s long history.
After passing through the Iljumun Gate, or the “One Pillar Gate,” in English, you’ll come to the overly commercialized part of the temple near the Manse-ru Pavilion. There are walls of needless knick-knacks crammed around this pavilion. To the right, between the two gates, is the temple’s rather unassuming Beomjong-ru (Bell Pavilion).
Passing under the Manse-ru Pavilion, you’ll suddenly find yourself in the main temple courtyard with the Daeung-jeon Hall front and centre. In front of the main hall are two three-story stone pagodas. Both pagodas date back to the 9th century, and they’re simplistic in design. The Later Silla-era pagodas are also Korean Treasure #395. These two pagodas beautifully framed the Daeung-jeon Hall. The exterior walls to the Daeung-jeon Hall are plain except for the traditional dancheong colours that adorn it. Housed inside the Daeung-jeon Hall is a solitary seated statue of Seokgamoni-bul (The Historical Buddha). The Daeung-jeon Hall dates back to 1824, and it’s Korean Treasure #1311.
To the right of the Daeung-jeon main hall is the Jijang-jeon Hall. This hall is dedicated to Jijang-bosal (The Bodhisattva of the Afterlife). Sitting on the main altar of this shrine hall is a green haired seated statue of Jijang-bosal. This central statue is joined on both sides by statues and paintings of the Shiwang (The Ten Kings of the Underworld).
Through a path that leads past the Jijang-jeon Hall, and emerging on the other side and on an upper terrace, you’ll find five additional shrine halls. The first of the five is the Palsang-jeon Hall. This hall is believed to date back to the 18th century. And there are ten statues on the main altar centred by Seokgamoni-bul (The Historical Buddha). These statues are backed by copies of eight original Palsang-do (The Eight Scenes from the Buddha’s Life Murals). Next to the Palsang-jeon Hall, and to the left, is the Buljo-jeon Hall. Inside this hall are rows of both paintings and statues of the Buddha. Between these two halls, and up on a little ledge, is the Wontong-jeon Hall. This hall was first constructed in 1660, and it’s dedicated to Gwanseeum-bosal (The Bodhisattva of Compassion). The statue inside the Wontong-jeon Hall is both beautiful and ornate.
Next to the Buljo-jeon Hall is the Josa-jeon Hall, which houses eight paintings of monks who once called Seonamsa Temple home. This hall stands next to a beautiful lotus pond. Past the shrubbery, and out on the other side, you’ll find the Samseong-gak Hall. Housed inside this shaman shrine hall is a Sanshin (Mountain Spirit) mural with a cartoonish-looking tiger keeping the Mountain Spirit company.
Admission to the temple is 2,000 won.
HOW TO GET THERE: You’ll first need to get to the Suncheon Jonghap Bus Terminal (순천종합버스터미널). From this bus terminal, you’ll need to take either Bus #1 or Bus #16 to get to the Seonamsa Temple bus stop. Once you’ve arrived at the stop, you’ll need to walk for about a kilometre up the forested trail.
OVERALL RATING: 8.5/10. Just for the sheer number of cultural artifacts and Korean Treasures, Seonamsa Temple quickly becomes a must. However, when you look more carefully, you’ll find that Seonamsa Temple is home to the stunning Seungseon-gyo Bridge, the beautiful Wontong-jeon Hall, and the historic Iljumun Gate with interesting inscriptions on it. And when you think that Songgwangsa Temple is just over the mountain, you’ll need to find time in your schedule to visit Seonamsa Temple.Seungseon-gyo Bridge welcomes you to the temple grounds at Seonamsa Temple.The Iljumun Gate.The Daeung-jeon Hall.Inside the Daeung-jeon Hall with a look at Seokgamoni-bul.The twin Later Silla-era pagodas that are Korean Treasure #395.A look inside the Jijang-jeon Hall.The Palsang-jeon Hall.An amazing look inside the Palsang-jeon Hall.A look up at the Wontong-jeon Hall at Seonamsa Temple.One last look at Seonamsa Temple.
Let`s learn more about Laser Vision Correction directly from BGN Eye Hospital leading ophthalmologist Dr. Kang Jeong Yeop.
Today we will have an interview with doctor Kang and ask the most common questions about Laser Vision Correction.
- Hello Doctor Kang, one of the first questions that bothers our patients is " Am I a candidate for a Laser Vision Correction"?
- Hello guys, First of all we should consider patient`s age, general health, lens prescription, eyes health and stable cornea condition. Ideal patient should be over 18 years old, has no eye disease and good corneal condition. Laser Vision Correction can be done for patients with nearsightedness up to -9 diopters, astigmatism up to -5 diopters and hyperopia up to +4 to 5 diopters.
- Thank you D. Kang. Also are there any health conditions or restrictions for Laser Vision Correction?
Laser Vision correction is not recommended for pregnant woman, patients with cornea diseases such as keratoconus or patients over 45 years old because of Presbyopia.
-I see, doctor Kang. I know that there are several types of Laser Vision Correction (LASIK,LASEK,SMILE). Can patient choose preferred type of the surgery himself?
- Good question. On condition that after overall examination patient does not have any medical restrictions and cornea condition is good, patient may choose type of the Laser Vision Correction himself.
- That`s great news! Also I have heard about ReLEx SMILE - the newest type of Laser Vision Correction. Doctor Kang, so what is so special about SMILE surgery?
ReLEx SMILE is a mini-invasive surgery designed to treat nearsightedness and astigmatism. Traditional LASIK surgery involves creating a flap on the cornea, before using excimer laser to reshape the cornea. With ReLEx SMILE, no corneal flap is required, as femto-laser Visumax forms lenticula disc inside the cornea, which is removed through the tiny 2 mm incision on the upper layer of the cornea. As there is no flap involved cornea is stable and none of the complications with flap are involved.
-Thank you Doctor Kang! So could you please describe a perfect candidate for the SMILE surgery?
Perfect candidate for SMILE surgery is someone with stable cornea condition, myopia up to -9 diopters, or astigmatism up to -4 diopters.
- I see and who may not be a candidate?
Patients with hyperopia may not be a candidate for SMILE as well as patients with myopia over 9 diopters. If you would like to check if you are a candidate for SMILE or other types of Laser Vision Correction book a consultation with us and visit BGN!
Currently BGN Eye Hospital is offering free LASIK examination and consultation for everyone who would like to get rid of the glasses and contact lenses. As well, as Fall discounts up to 150,000 KRW that are valid until the 30th of November.
For a while, I was seeing some amazing photos of these rocky formations out at sea. I had always assumed that they were further up the coast around Samcheok or somewhere like that. It seemed that many Korean photographers knew about these places and I was at a loss to try and find out where they were.
Then a fellow photographer named Brian Kim, introduced me to this area near Gyeongju a few years ago. It was amazing and also perfect for my side project photographing lighthouses. The area was located in front of the Songdaemal Lighthouse in the small village of Gampo.A Peaceful Place
One of the first things that I noticed about Gampo was the fact that it was so quiet in the mornings. It was a place that I usually catch the sunrise and at that time, there are usually very few people around. If there are, they are usually tucked in behind a camera too.
Small villages like this are something that many people don’t see when they arrive in Korean and hit Seoul or Busan. These villages are typically centered around the port and the fishing industry. You won’t find large supermarkets here. Just the local marts and perhaps a GS25 convenience store.
It’s that sort of small town charm that keeps me coming back, aside from the stunning seascapes and the lighthouses. One of the times that I went, an elderly man approached as I was capturing one of the most interesting lighthouse designs out there. We had a short chat and he sad that the next time that I was coming through to pop in for a coffee, gesturing at his little shack by the port. It was a simple kind gesture but it sort of showed the nature of the kind of people out there.Rocky Shores
What brings most people out to the area are usually the rocks that jut out of the water near the Songdaemal Lighthouse. During the sunrise, which is arguably the best time to photograph here, it makes for a wonderful and dynamic shot.
The rocks also make it a perfect place to get in nice and tight and with a long enough exposure, make a really out of the world shot. So you are not just limited to scenic shots with a centred horizon that a few photographers do. There is enough variety to really experiment with the scene a bit more.The Lighthouses
This was one of the things that really amazed me. In this area along there are about 3 distinct lighthouses with unique designs. This really can only be surpassed by Gijange. However, these lighthouses all share the historical themes linked to Gyeongju.
Not to mention that you also have a piece of history with one of the oldest lighthouses in the area standing right next to Songdaemal. For a person that is interested in these amazing structures this is a special place.
An interesting note is that there is actually a button to ring the bell on the lighthouse that is shaped like the bells found at buddhist temples around Korea. So it is actually functional in that respect too!
The bottomline is that places like this are really off the beaten path but are so worth the visit. Gampo is located about just over an hour from Busan and about 2 hours or so from Daegu.
Here is a link to the Songdaemal on Kakao Maps to help you locate it and get directions. Don’t forget that if you are driving out there, the Kakao Maps app is in English and the navigation is also in English. This app is extremely useful in finding locations like this.
- Typhoon Maysak on way to Jeju and south east (Arirang)
- Typhoon Maysak on path to hit Busan early Thursday (Yonhap)
- Typhoon Maysak could be strongest to hit Korea in years (The Korea Herald)
- Back-to-Back Typhoons Maysak, then Haishen, Could Hammer South Korea Through Monday ( Weather.com)
Life is full of emotions. And expressing them can help you communicate your situation or desire. It’s important to learn how to express emotions in Korean. After all, most conversations involve talking about how you feel at some point. Right? Not only will knowing how to express yourself help you reach fluency faster, but you’ll form better friendships and connections with people as you learn. Here’s what you need to know if you want to express your feelings in Korean.Do Koreans Refrain From Expressing Emotions?
While Korean has both formal and informal speech, it’s difficult to define Korean words for feelings and emotions as either formal or informal. For example, you’ll use some words in formal situations more frequently than informal ones. That’s life.
However, that doesn’t necessarily mean that those words are truly formal. You can use these words in a poetic or casual way as well. Ignoring these confusing, but important rules can cause your Korean speech to be unnatural. So, don’t fight it. Instead, keep these rules in mind as you move forward is a smart idea.Grammar and Expressing Emotions in Korean
Before we dive into the vocabulary, it’s important to take a look at how you build these Korea phrases. It may surprise you, but there are no adjectives in Korean. Happy, sad, nervous, bored, these are all adjectives in English. They’re words that describe nouns. So, how do we express emotions in Korean without them? Let’s take a look at how Korean grammar handles emotions.
In Korean, you have descriptive verbs instead of adjectives. This means that you need to conjugate a verb to communicate a description. You’ll see in the vocabulary list below, that the English equivalent of Korean phrases is a conjugated version of “I am”. Be mindful of this when you’re expressing your emotions and feelings in Korean.How to Express Positive Emotions in Korean기분 [gibun] – Feeling / Mood
기분 means ‘mood’ or ‘feeling’ what you feel, as in your emotions. Sometimes, it’s natural to translate 기분 as ‘emotion’. Since 기분 is a noun, ‘I feel great’ becomes ‘my feeling is great’ when you translate English to Korean.
Native Koreans don’t use a first-person possessive ‘my’ when they use 기분.
This Korean word is very essential because ‘나는 행복해요 (I’m happy)’ is a very uncommon phrase. Native Koreans would say ‘기분이 좋다 (feeling is good)’ instead.행복하다 [henbokada] – To be happy
행복하다 is ‘happy in Korean’. This phrase is crucial. Not because it’s essential, but because it’s rarely used in Korean conversation.
행복하다 is a very serious and poetic word. If someone asks if you are happy in Korean, then it translates into something like ‘are you happy and satisfied with your life?’. It’s never used in reference to small things like ‘I’m happy for you’. Even though 행복하다 has the same meaning as ‘happy’. The usage is completely different.
Also, if you simply want to say ‘I’m happy today’ then say ‘기분이 좋아요 (I feel good)’ instead.좋아해요 [joahaeyo] – To like
You would use word joahaeyo in Korean as a general term meaning love, I like you, I love you.재미있다 [jemi:itdda] – To be fun
재미있다 is an informal Korean word for ‘to be fun’. Native Koreans often use it as ‘to be funny’ also. It’s the most common Korean word that is used to describe when a person or thing is fun or funny. Even though it’s a formal Korean word, it’s not uncommon to use this word informal conversation as well.
To say ‘I had a great day’ or ‘I spent a great day’ in Korean, using 재미있다 most naturally translates to ‘‘오늘 재밌었어요 (it was fun today)’ especially in casual conversations.
If you pronounce 재미있다 fast, then it sounds ‘재밌다’. 재밌다 is an abbreviation of 재미있다.More Positive Korean Words to Express EmotionsKoreanRomanized KoreanEnglish행복해요.Haengbokhaeyo.(I’m) happy.사랑에 빠졌어요.Sarang-e bbajyeosseoyo.(I’m) in love.살아있음을 느껴요.Sara-isseumeul neukkyeoyo.(I) feel alive.기대 되요.Gidae dwoeyo.(I’m) excited.놀라워요.Nollaweoyo.(I’m) amazed.만족해요.Manjokhaeyo.(I’m) content.균형 잡힌 느낌이에요.Gyunhyeong jabhin neukkimieyo.(I) feel balanced.유치해요.yuchihaeyo(you are / this is) silly자랑스러워요Jarangseureowoeyo(I am) proud활기차요Hwalgichayo(I am) energetic활발해요Hwalbalhaeyo(I am) livelyHow to Communicate Negative Emotions in Korean슬프다 [seulpeuda] – To be sad
슬프다 means ‘to be sad’ in Korean. 슬프다 describes an extremely sad mood, like the idea that you are on the verge of tears. Native Koreans avoid using 슬프다 when they talk about their emotions in conversations.
Instead, it is acceptable to use, ‘기분이 안좋다 (I feel not good)’ or ‘우울하다 (to be depressed)’.
Although Koreans may not use, 슬프다 when talking about personal emotion, it’s perfectly acceptable to describe a movie or a story like ‘이 영화 진짜 슬퍼요 (this movie is really sad’).우울하다 [u:ulhada] – To be depressed / Blue / Down
우울하다 is a formal Korean word that means ‘to be depressed’. While this is a formal Korean word, people often use it mostly in casual conversations.
우울하다 is the most common expression for ‘being blue’, ‘being down’ or ‘being depressed’ or ‘being sad’. You can also say ‘기분이 안좋다 (I don’t feel good)’ for ‘being down’.화나다 [hwanada] – To be angry / Upset / Mad
화나다 is ‘to be angry’ in English. The funny thing is that 화나다 is not an adjective. It’s an action that describes when you become angry. There is also a big difference between English and Korean use. Since it’s an action, even if you write it in the past tense, it always means ‘you are angry’ right now, not ‘I was angry’.짜증나다 [jjajeungnada] – To be annoyed / Irritated / Frustrated
짜증나다 is a unique Korean word that English doesn’t have. The translation is subject to change based on context, but it generally means ‘to be annoyed/irritated’, or ‘to be frustrated’.
짜증나다 also describes ‘something that keeps bothering you, so you are upset’. Koreans often use it as an exclamation such as ‘oh come on!’, ‘for god sake!’.
Additionally, 짜증나다 is an action just like 화나다, so the past tense form 짜증났다 describes the present status. When you say, ‘something or someone is 짜증나다’. The meaning then becomes ‘to be annoying’ or ‘to be frustrating’.긴장하다 [ginjanghada] – To be nervous / To be tensed
To be nervous/tensed is an easy phrase. 긴장하다 means ‘to be nervous’ in Korean, and it’s very similar to ‘to be nervous’ or ‘to be tensed’ in English.심심하다 [simsimhada] – To be bored
심심하다 is an informal Korean word that describes a state of ‘being bored’. Unlike other Korean words that describe moods, it’s acceptable and natural to use this word only in casual conversations.
However, this usage is limited to describing an emotion, not describing if a game or movie is boring. You also cannot use it as a verb. Therefore, you can’t use it to say, ‘something bores someone’.
The Korean word for frustration is Aigoo. Think of Aigoo as the Korean equivalent of “aw man!” or “geez”.More Words for Negative Emotions in KoreanKoreanRomanized KoreanEnglish피곤해요.Pigonhaeyo.(I’m) tired.화가나요.Hwaganayo.(I’m) angry.질투나요.Jiltunayo.(I’m) jealous.걱정되요.Gukjungdweyo(I’m) worried.몹시 화가나요.Mobshi hwaga-nayo.(I’m) furious.창피해요.Changpihaeyo.(I’m) embarrassed.긴장이 되요.Ginjang-i dwoeyo.(I’m) nervous.무서워요.Museo-weoyo.(I’m) frightened.바빠요.Bappayo.(I’m) busy.슬퍼요.Seulpeoyo.(I’m) sad.좀 바빠요.Jom bappayo.(I’m) in a hurry.지쳤어요Jichyeosseoyo(I’m) exhausted불만스러워요Bulmanseureoweoyo(I’m) unsatisfied무서워요.Museo-weoyo.(I’m) frightened.실망했어요Silmanghetseoyo(I’m) disappointedHow to Learn Korean Faster!
Now you have 36 different ways you can show your feelings and emotions in Korean. But, of course, this language is much more than just this lesson. If you want to reach complete Korean fluency fast, then you need a reliable language learning method. Luckily, the OptiLingo offers everything you need to express all your emotions in Korean.
OptiLingo is a language learning app that actually works. By showing you high-frequency phrases , this language learning program can teach you exactly how the locals speak. And you’re guaranteed to remember all your lessons. Discover how effective this method is for you when you try OptiLingo today!
In waiting for a new apartment I wrote a few pensive poems noticing the tree leaves growing darker in preparation for the autumn display. I found a new apartment and job so things are going quite well indeed.
black rusting coal train
old grain seed farmer sows out
between tracks grass grows
sweater warm thick socks
green leaves shiver convoy of clouds
evening beef broth tea on
"Hot day yesterday"
sun droops between clouds
lime to em'rald trees
rain on dark green trees
lines on faded jeans
mid-July hints at fall colours
It seems I'm quite fascinated by the idea of a stopped lead heavy steam engine and its contrast with the slow growing gentleness of nature; an idea I will explore further with regards to Steampunk style.
I plan on incorporating food into my haiku more as well.
About the Author
Matthew William Thivierge has abandoned his PhD studies in Shakespeare and is now currently almost half-way through becoming a tea-master (Japanese,Korean & Chinese tea ceremony). He is a part time Ninjologist with some Jagaek studies (Korean 'ninja') and on occasion views the carrying on of pirates from his balcony mounted telescope.
Life of an ESL Teacher in Saudi Arabia during Covid - Korea Podcast 73
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Without a doubt, Bulguksa Temple in Gyeongju is the most famous Korean Buddhist temple both in Korea and internationally. Not only is it a UNESCO World Heritage Site from 1995, but it also houses seven National Treasures, six Treasures, and Bulguksa Temple itself is considered a Historic Site by the Korean government.
Bulguksa Temple was first constructed in 528 A.D., which was also the first year that Buddhism was officially accepted by the Silla Kingdom (57 B.C – 935 A.D.) during the reign of King Beopheung (r.514-540 A.D.). The temple was built to appease the wishes of King Beopheung’s mother, Lady Yeongje, and his wife, Queen Gi Yun. Originally, the temple was named Beopryusa Temple or Hwaeom Bulguksa Temple. Later, the temple was rebuilt by King Jinheung’s mother, Lady Jiso.
Then nearly two hundred years later, Minister Kim Daeseong started to rebuild Bulguksa Temple. According to the Samguk Yusa (“Memorabilia of the Three Kingdoms,” in English), Kim Daeseong built the temple to help pacify the spirits of his parents. However, before it could be completed in 774 A.D., Kim Daeseong died and the temple was completed by the Silla royal court. It was at this time that Bulguksa Temple was given its current name, which means “Buddha Land Temple,” in English.
Bulguksa Temple was expanded and renovated during the Goryeo Dynasty (918-1392) up until the early Joseon Dynasty (1392-1910), until all the wooden buildings at Bulguksa Temple were destroyed by fire by the invading Japanese during the Imjin War (1592-98). Bulguksa Temple was re-constructed in 1604. And in 1700, the original layout of the temple was completely restored. In about 200 years, over 40 renovations took place up until 1805. It was at this point that the temple fell into disrepair and was looted by robbers. Finally, from 1963-73, over a ten year period, the temple was restored to its former glory with twenty-four buildings being reconstructed.
The first structure to greet you, besides the Iljumun Gate at the entry, is the Cheonwangmun Gate just beyond the temple pond. The Cheonwangmun Gate houses four masterful statues of the Four Heavenly Kings.
Having passed through the Cheonwangmun Gate, you’ll come to the most recognizable part of the temple: the temple’s front facade. What makes this part of the temple so unique are the pair of stairs that once led up to the temple grounds but are now off-limits for preservation purposes. The set of stairs to the right is known as Cheongun-gyo (“Blue Cloud Bridge”) and Baekun-gyo (“White Cloud Bridge”). These dual bridge structures were originally built in 751 A.D., and they’re National Treasure #23. The bridges once led up to the Daeung-jeon Hall and are symbolic of passing from the earthly world to the spiritual world of the Buddha.
To the left are the Yeonhwa-gyo (“Lotus Bridge”) and Chilbo-gyo (“Seven Treasures Bridge”). These bridges are National Treasure #22. While smaller in size than the bridges to the east, these bridges were also built in 751 A.D. and are priceless because they are collectively the only known bridges to have survived fully intact from the Silla Kingdom.
Since you can’t climb these stairs anymore, you’ll need to pass to the right up a stone pathway. Once you enter the courtyard that houses the Daeung-jeon Hall, you’ll instantly notice two towering pagodas. The first of the two, and the one closer to you on the right, is Dabo-tap Pagoda, or “The Pagoda of Many Treasures,” which is National Treasure #20. Probably the most famous pagoda in all of Korea was first built in around 751 A.D. during the construction of the temple. And to the left of Dabo-tap Pagoda is Seokga-tap Pagoda, which also dates back to 751 A.D., and means “Seokgamoni-bul Pagoda,” in English. This simplistic pagoda is National Treasure #21.
Behind these two stone pagodas is the temple’s main hall: the Daeung-jeon Hall. The hall was reconstructed in 1765 after it was destroyed by fire in 1593 by the Japanese during the Imjin War (1592-98). The shrine hall is Treasure #1744, and it houses a large statue of the Buddha, Seokgamoni-bul, inside. To the rear of the main hall is the Museol-jeon Hall. The word “museol” means “non-lecturing” in English, while “jeon” means hall. The name of the temple highlights how language sometimes fails and the Buddha’s teachings are beyond words. Rebuilt in 1910, and then later restored in 1973, there’s a beautifully crowned Jijang-bosal (The Bodhisattva of the Afterlife) inside with a staff in his hand.
To the rear of the Museol-jeon Hall, and up a steep set of stairs, is the Gwaneum-jeon Hall. Inside is housed a slender statue of the Bodhisattva of Compassion with a mural of the Bodhisattva with a thousand hands. These hands are symbolic of Gwanseeum-bosal reaching out to those in need. It’s also from this vantage point that you get an amazing view of the lower courtyard that houses the Daeung-jeon Hall below.
Through a doorway to the left, and down an equally steep set of stairs that gained you admittance to the courtyard where the Gwaneum-jeon Hall is housed, is the Biro-jeon Hall. Housed inside this shrine hall is Birojana-bul (The Buddha of Cosmic Energy). The statue of Birojana-bul dates back to the 9th century and is National Treasure #26. Seated 1.77 metres in height, Birojana-bul is making the mudra of the Diamond Fist. Still in the same courtyard, but to the far left, is a Sari-tap. This beautiful stone structure is believed to date back to the Goryeo Dynasty (918-1392). While damaged by the Japanese, the Sari-tap was eventually returned to the Korean peninsula in the 1930s. The stupa is Korean Treasure #61, and it purportedly houses either the remains of eight monks or the remains of King Heongang’s Queen (the king’s reign was from 875-886 A.D.).
The final building in the upper courtyard is the Nahan-jeon Hall. Housed inside this hall are sixteen wooden statues of the Nahan who were the Disciples of the Historical Buddha). Surrounding the hall are hundreds of stone cairns of all sizes that visitors have left behind for good luck.
Descending down an easier set of stairs than the former two, you’ll be greeted by the Geukrak-jeon Hall, which rests parallel, and to the left of the Daeung-jeon Hall, in a courtyard of its own. Out in front of the hall is a golden pig that you can rub for good luck. Housed inside this hall is a statue of Amita-bul that’s National Treasure #27. If you look close enough inside this hall, you’ll see an older style Dragon Ship of Wisdom, as well as a wooden relief of a golden pig, as well.
Admission to the temple for adults is 6,000 won and for children, ages 8 to 12, it’s 3,000 won. For teenagers, ages 13 to 18, it’s 4,000 won. And if you drive, parking at Bulguksa Temple costs 1,000 won.
HOW TO GET THERE: From the Gyeongju Intercity Bus Terminal, you can take either Bus #10 or #11 that goes directly to Bulguksa Temple. The ride takes about one hour in length to get to the temple.
OVERALL RATING: 10/10. Bulguksa Temple, alongside Tongdosa Temple and Haeinsa Temple, are the top three temples in all of Korea to visit. Like the two former temples, Bulguksa Temple is also a UNESCO Heritage Site. It has an amazing seven national treasures like Dabo-tap Pagoda, Seokga-tap Pagoda, the pair of bridges along the front facade of the temple, and shrine hall statues dedicated to Amita-bul (The Buddha of the Western Paradise) and Birojana-bul (The Buddha of Cosmic Energy). There is so much to see and enjoy at this amazing temple in Gyeongju, so take your time and soak it all in. Enjoy all this majestic temple has to offer. It truly is a one-off.
Outside the main courtyard.Dabo-tap Pagoda.Seokga-tap Pagoda.The Daeung-jeon Hall.The steep stairs that lead up to the Gwaneum-jeon Hall.The amazing view from the Gwaneum-jeon Hall courtyard.A look at Birojana-bul (National Treasure #26)Just in front of the Nahan-jeon Hall during Buddha’s Birthday celebrations.The highly photogenic front facade at Bulguksa Temple.
PARK Won-soon, the mayor of Seoul and the 2nd most influential person after President Moon Jae-in, took his own life on July 9 after a sexual harassment complaint by his ex-secretary was filed a day earlier. First elected mayor of Korea's capital in 2011 in a by-election, Park was reelected in 2014 and 2016, with two years left in his term. Park was also expected to run for presidency in 2022 for the current ruling Democratic Party of Korea.
An irony is that long time civic activist Park gained his reputation after winning Korea's first sexual harassment case in 1998 as a lawyer for a female assistant professor , which led to Female Rights Activist of the Year award for Park. Another blck eye for the ruling party whose Mayor of Busan, Korea's 2nd largest city, resigned three months ago over sexual offense against his secretary, and whose Governor of Chungnam Province is currently serving in jail on sexual assaults against, again, his secretary. A controversy arose over an extravagant mortuary set up by the City of Seoul for use until the funeral on July 13 . "Why tax payer's money for sex offender? vs. "Why not for Park's 10 year dedication for Seoul ?"
Seoul became the capital of Korea 626 years ago after a military coup in 1388 by General Lee Sung-gye who defied his king's order to attack the emerging Ming dynasty in China. Gen Lee changed the country name from Koryo to Chosun, and moved the capital from Kaesong, just above DMZ where Kim Jong-un recently blew up the N-S Liaison Office, to Seoul in 1394 because Lee valued the advantage of a big river around Seoul. Lee built his palace where it still stands in the center of Seoul. The name Chosun is still alive as North Korea calls its country Democratic Republic of Chosun People. Yep. North Korea is a democratic nation just like a mosquito is a bird.
70th Anniversary of the Korean War: North Korea isn’t Going Anywhere; It’s Pretty Stable (Unfortunately)
My argument, in brief, is that North Korea is actually quite stable. Hence the answer to the symposium question – would Korea be re-unified by 2025 – is a resounding ‘no.’ Here is a brief Twitter thread which summarizes my argument.
North Korea faces little pressure internally – Kim has consolidated power quite nicely; elites are quiescent; there’s never been a popular revolt – and externally – China is unwilling to cut NK off; nukes give NK deterrence against regime change. The sanctions are tough, but Northern elites have been pushing the costs of them onto their population for decades. They won’t bring down or substantially change the DRPK system.
So we are stuck. We can try to negotiate, and we should, but the last few years’ flailing shows how hard that is. The stalemate is quite persistent.
The full essay follows the jump:
On this 70th anniversary of the Korean War, I believe the division of the Korean peninsula will persist through 2025. North Korea’s elite opposes unification – they would lose their privileges and likely face harsh retribution – and they face little pressure to change:
1. Internal Pressure?: Supreme leader Kim Jong Un has successfully entrenched himself as monarch.
Autocracies are most susceptible to change during leadership transitions. Most of have no clear rules for succession. Even classical monarchies routinely suffered from jockeying among various bloodline claimants.
North Korea most recently went through such a transition in 2011-2012, when Kim’s father passed. Kim was, at the time, young and inexperienced. He lacked the cronyist relations which bolstered his grandfather and (less so) father’s rule. He had no direct experience in the two most important institutions of the regime – the party and the army. Nonetheless, he was not eliminated or made a figurehead.
Any challengers by this point have likely been killed or removed. His father’s pallbearers, it has been widely noted, are all out of power now. Also, there has never been an internal popular revolt akin to Arab Spring or the Velvet Revolution.
So Kim likely faces little internal challenge, and he has behaved ruthlessly, much as his father and grandfather before him, on the core issues of family control and regime survival.
2. External Pressure?: China can increasingly afford to ‘carry’ North Korea.
In the late 1980s, Soviet premier Mikhail Gorbachev ‘sold’ East Germany to the United States, because the Soviet Union was declining and Gorbachev was looking to retrench from Europe to save the Soviet system. China’s relationship with North Korea today is the opposite. China is rising; it can increasingly afford to carry North Korea and its dysfunctional economy as a part of its larger regional ambitions.
China is the only external actor with any real influence over North Korea, and it opposes Korean unification. A united Korea would likely be led by the more functional South and therefore tilt toward the democratic world. Hence Beijing’s economic ability and political desire to keep North Korea intact mean little external pressure on the regime to change.
3. Coercion?: Not with a Nuclear Missile Shield
At home, Kim has disciplined and bought off the party and the military. Abroad, so long as he grooms the China relationship properly, he will not face a regime-threatening quarantine of his economy. But regime change by force has always been another, however frightening, possibility. US President George Bush put North Korea on the ‘axis of evil,’ and President Donald Trump threatened fire and fury.
But this possibility is now nearly foreclosed too. The North has successfully developed a basic nuclear warhead and an intercontinental ballistic missile. It can now directly deter the United States via nuclear weapons. This all but precludes offensive US military action. So long as Kim exercises a minimum of caution – not stumbling into an accidental war with the Americans – the North is safe on this front too.
Other scenarios are even more far-fetched than the above discussion. For example, all the above scenarios assume North Korea pressured, or otherwise collapsing, into South Korean-led unification. But could North Korea lead a unity project? Almost certainly not. Southern citizens would fight the loss of their freedoms, and the North probably could not even absorb the South without bringing down its own highly stylized internal system.
The only remaining possibility for regime crisis is the premature death of Kim, which would immediately raise the issues of power transition and change discussed in point 1 above. Kim’s health is poor; his father died suddenly of a heart attack; and there is no obvious successor at the moment, as Kim’s children are too young. But assuming that Kim does the minimum necessary to stay alive and cogent, North Korea appears quite stable right now.Robert E Kelly
Department of Political Science & Diplomacy
Pusan National University
In this free lesson, we will cover the full list of countries in Korean.
This list of country names will be extremely valuable when learning the Korean language. If you plan to have conversations in Korean or just learn the language for fun, you will for sure be asked about where you are from.How to Use this List of Country Names
We’ve already learned how to introduce yourself in Korean. And as you may know through that lesson, as well as your other international experiences, where you come from is often part of the introduction process.
The next time you get asked, you will easily be able to tell your new Korean friends where you’re from. And you’ll also be able to understand when your other international friends tell you in Korean where they’re from!
We’ve divided the countries into categories based on the continent. They are listed in alphabetical order in English, with the Korean words next to them.Languages in Korean
In many cases, you can express the languages of these countries by adding an 어 (eo) to the end of the country names. For example, the word for Japan is 일본 (ilbon). If you are learning the Japanese language, you are learning 일본어 (ilboneo).
Similarly, Korea is 한국 (hanguk). If you are learning the Korean language, you’re learning 한국어 (hangugeo)!Europe (유럽)
Here are the European country names in Korean. Some of the words in Korean may sound like the country name, and others may not.EnglishKoreanAlbania알바니아 (albania)Andorra안도라 (andora)Armenia아르메니아 (areumenia)Austria오스트리아 (oseuteuria)Azerbaijan아제르바이잔 (ajereubaijan)Belarus벨라루스 (bellaruseu)Belgium벨기에 (belgie)Bosnia and Herzegovina보스니아 헤르체고비나 (boseunia hereuchegobina)Bulgaria불가리아 (bulgaria)Croatia크로아티아 (keuroatia)Cyprus키프로스 (kipeuroseu)Czech Republic체코 (cheko)Denmark덴마크 (denmakeu)Estonia에스토니아 (eseutonia)Finland핀란드 (pillandeu)France프랑스 (peurangseu)Georgia그루지아 (geurujia)Germany독일 (dogil)Greece그리스 (geuriseu)Hungary헝가리 (heonggari)Iceland아이스란드 (aiseurandeu)Ireland아일랜드 (aillaendeu)Italy이탈리아 (itallia)Kazakhstan카자흐스탄 (kajaheuseutan)Latvia라트비아 (rateubia)Liechtenstein리히텐슈타인 (rihitensyutain)Lithuania리투아니아 (rituania)Luxembourg룩셈부르크 (ruksembureukeu)Malta몰타 (molta)Moldova몰도바 (moldoba)Monaco모나코 (monako)Montenegro몬테네그로 (montenegeuro)Netherlands네덜란드 (nedeollandeu)North Macedonia마케도니아 공화국 (makedonia gonghwaguk)Norway노르웨이 (noreuwei)Poland폴란드 (pollandeu)Portugal포르투갈 (poreutugal)Romania루마니아 (rumania)Russia러시아 (reosia)San Marino산마리노 (sanmarino)Serbia세르비아 (sereubia)Slovakia슬로바키아 (seullobakia)Slovenia슬로베니아 (seullobenia)Spain스페인 (seupein)Sweden스웨덴 (seuweden)Switzerland스위스 (seuwiseu)Turkey터키 (teoki)Ukraine우크라이나 (ukeuraina)United Kingdom영국 (yeongguk)Asia (아시아)
Here is a list of the Asian country names in Korean.EnglishKoreanAfghanistan아프가니스탄 (apeuganiseutan)Bahrain바레인 (barein)Bangladesh방글라데시 (banggeulladesi)Bhutan부탄 (butan)Brunei브루나이 (beurunai)Cambodia캄보디아 (kambodia)China중국 (jungguk)India인도 (indo)Indonesia인도네시아 (indonesia)Iran이란 (iran)Iraq이라크 (irakeu)Israel이스라엘 (iseurael)Jordan요르단 (yoreudan)Japan일본 (ilbon)Kuwait쿠웨이트 (kuweiteu)Kyrgyzstan키르기스스탄 (kireugiseuseutan)Laos라오스 (raoseu)Lebanon레바논 (rebanon)Malaysia말레시아 (mallesia)Maldives몰디브 (moldibeu)Mongolia몽골 (monggol)Myanmar미얀마 (miyanma)Nepal네팔 (nepal)North Korea북한 (bukan)Oman오만 (oman)Pakistan파키스탄 (pakiseutan)Palestine팔레스타인 (palleseutain)Philippines필리핀 (pillipin)Qatar카타르 (katareu)Saudi Arabia사우디아라비아 (saudiarabia)Singapore싱가포르 (singgaporeu)South Korea대한민국 (daehanminguk)Sri Lanka스리랑카 (seurirangka)Syria시리아 (siria)Taiwan대만 (daeman)Tajikistan타지키스탄 (tajikiseutan)Thailand태국 (taeguk)Turkmenistan투르크메니스탄 (tureukeumeniseutan)United Arab Emirates (UAE)아랍에미리트 (arabemiriteu)Uzbekistan우즈베키스탄 (ujeubekiseutan)Vietnam베트남 (beteunam)Yemen예멘 (yemen)
Here are the African country names in Korean.
Algeria → 알제리 (aljeri)
Angola → 앙골라 (anggolla)
Benin → 베냉 (benaeng)
Botswana → 보츠와나 (bocheuwana)
Burkina Faso → 부르키나파소 (bureukinapaso)
Burundi → 부룬디 (burundi)
Cabo Verde → 카보베르데 (kabobereude)
Cameroon → 카메룬 (kamerun)
Central African Republic → 중앙아프리카 공화국 (jungangapeurika gonghwaguk)
Chad → 차드 (chadeu)
Comoros → 코모로 (komoro)
Congo, Democratic Republic of the → 콩고 민주 공화국 (konggo minju gonghwaguk)
Congo, Republic of the → 콩고 공화국 (konggo gonghwaguk)
Cote d’Ivoire → 코트디부아르 (koteudibuareu)
Djibouti → 지부티 (jibuti)
Egypt → 이집트 (ijipteu)
Equatorial Guinea → 적도 기니 (jeokdo gini)
Eritrea → 에리트레아 (eriteurea)
Ethiopia → 에티오피아 (etiopia)
Gabon → 가봉 (gabong)
Gambia → 감비아 (gambia)
Ghana → 가나 (gana)
Guinea → 기니 (gini)
Guinea-Bissau → 기니비사우 (ginibisau)
Kenya → 케냐 (kenya)
Lesotho → 레소토 (resoto)
Liberia → 라이베리아 (raiberia)
Libya → 리비아 (ribia)
Madagascar → 마다가스카르 (madagaseukareu)
Malawi → 말라위 (mallawi)
Mali → 말리 (malli)
Mauritania → 모리타니 (moritani)
Mauritius → 모리셔스 (morisyeoseu)
Morocco → 모로코 (moroko)
Mozambique → 모잠비크 (mojambikeu)
Namibia → 나미비아 (namibia)
Niger → 니제르 (nijereu)
Nigeria → 나이지리아 (naijiria)
Rwanda → 르완다 (reuwanda)
Sao Tome and Principe → 상투메프린시페 (sangtumepeurinsipe)
Senegal → 세네갈 (senegal)
Seychelles → 세이셸 (seisyel)
Sierra Leone → 시에라레온 (sierareon)
Somalia → 소말리아 (somallia)
South Africa → 남아프리카 공화국 (namapeurika gonghwaguk)
South Sudan → 남수단 (namsudan)
Sudan → 수단 (sudan)
Tanzania → 탄자니아 (tanjania)
Togo → 토고 (togo)
Tunisia → 튀니지 (twiniji)
Uganda → 우간다 (uganda)
Zambia → 잠비아 (jambia)
Zimbabwe → 짐바브웨 (jimbabeuwe)Americas (아메리카)
Here is how you say the country names of North, Central, and South America in Korean.
Antigua and Barbuda → 앤티가바부다 (aentigababuda)
Argentina → 아르헨티나 (areuhentina)
Bahamas → 바하마 (bahama)
Barbados → 바베이도스 (babeidoseu)
Belize → 벨리즈 (bellijeu)
Bolivia → 볼리비아 (bollibia)
Brazil → 브라질 (beurajil)
Canada → 캐나다 (kaenada)
Chile → 칠레 (chille)
Colombia → 콜롬비아 (kollombia)
Costa Rica → 코스타리카 (koseutarika)
Cuba → 쿠바 (kuba)
Dominica → 도미니카 (dominika)
Dominican Republic → 도미니카 공화국 (dominika gonghwaguk)
Ecuador → 에콰도르 (ekwadoreu)
El Salvador → 엘살바도르 (elsalbadoreu)
Grenada → 그레나다 (geurenada)
Guatemala → 과테말라 (gwatemalla)
Guyana → 가이아나 (gaiana)
Haiti → 아이티 (aiti)
Honduras → 온두라스 (onduraseu)
Jamaica → 자메이카 (jameika)
Mexico → 멕시코 (meksiko)
Nicaragua → 니카라과 (nikaragwa)
Panama → 파나마 (panama)
Paraguay → 파라과이 (paragwai)
Peru → 페루 (peru)
Saint Kitts and Nevis → 세인트키츠네비스 (seinteukicheunebiseu)
Saint Lucia → 세인트루시아 (seinteurusia)
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines → 세인트빈센트그레나딘 (seinteubinsenteugeurenadin)
Suriname → 수리남 (surinam)
Trinidad and Tobago → 트리니다드토바고 (teurinidadeutobago)
Uruguay → 우루과이 (urugwai)
United States → 미국 (miguk)
Venezuela → 베네수엘라 (benesuella)Oceania (오세아니아)
Here are the country names of Oceania in Korean. Note that some names may be said in two different ways. For example, Australia can be 호주 (hoju) or 오스트레일리아 (oseuteureillia).
The former is the original Korean version, which is used most of the time. The latter is the spelling of the English version in Korean letters. You are free to use either one.
Australia → 호주 (hoju)
Fiji → 피지 (piji)
Kiribati → 키리바시 (kiribasi)
Marshall Islands → 마셜제도 (masyeoljedo)
Micronesia → 미크로네시아 (mikeuronesia)
Nauru → 나우루 (nauru)
New Zealand → 뉴질랜드 (nyujillaendeu)
Palau → 팔라우 (pallau)
Papua New Guinea → 파푸아뉴기니 (papuanyugini)
Samoa → 사모아 (samoa)
Solomon Islands → 솔로몬제도 (sollomonjedo)
Tonga → 통가 (tongga)
Tuvalu → 투발루 (tuballu)
Vanuatu → 바누아투 (banuatu)
Now you know the correct vocabulary for the various country names in Korean. These words are a foundational part of the language, so get used to hearing and speaking them. Studying country names is a great way to learn Korean.
If your country is missing us from this list, let us know and we will help you. Otherwise, tell us in the comments where you’re from – in Korean! We’d love to know where on the globe you are at.
The post Countries in Korean – The Complete List of Country Names appeared first on 90 Day Korean®.
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Hello Again Everyone!!
Haedong Yonggungsa Temple, which means “Korean Dragon Palace Temple,” in English is a reference to Yongwang (The Dragon King) and the Yonggung (Dragon Palace) that he lives in under the sea. Located in coastal Gijang, Busan, Haedong Yonggungsa Temple has perhaps the most beautiful location for any temple in all of Korea.
The temple was first constructed in 1376 by the monk Naong Hyegeun (1320-1376). The temple was built after Naong Hyegeun had a dream. The dream was about the Divine Sea god of the East Sea. During this dream, the Divine Sea god told Naong Hyegeun to build a temple on top of Mt. Bongrae. If Naong Hyegeun did this, the nation would become larger and more stable. So after looking around the peninsula for a place to build a temple, Naong Hyegeun found the perfect place to build this temple. Initially, the temple was called Bomunsa Temple. However, in 1592, during the Imjin War (1592-98) with the invading Japanese, the temple was destroyed. It wasn’t until the 1930s, over three hundred years after its destruction, that the temple was rebuilt. It was rebuilt by the monk Ungang, from Tongdosa Temple, and renamed Haedong Yonggungsa around this time. Large parts of the present temple were constructed over the past twenty years; including the main hall, which was built in 2005. Haedong Yonggungsa Temple belongs to the third largest Buddhist Order in Korea: Cheontae-jong.
You first approach the temple grounds along the coastal waters of the East Sea. The road that leads up to the temple is long and winding until you come to a narrow corridor filled with vendors selling anything and everything. At the entry to this vendor bonanza is a large slender statue dedicated to the Bodhidharma. Having finally passed through the cacophony of vendors, you’ll come out on the other side to be greeted by the twelve zodiac generals that stand three metres in height. It’s a perfect time to take a picture, and people often are.
Next, just before you descend down the 108 stairs that leads to the main temple courtyard at Haedong Yonggungsa Temple, you’ll pass by a seven tier stone pagoda with a tire at its base. This tire shrine is for people to pray to so they can avoid car accidents! Yes, seriously: car accidents!
Through the gate with two golden dragons on either pillar, and down some of the stairs, you’ll next come to a statue of Podae-hwasang. This incarnation of Mireuk-bul (The Future Buddha) is meant to grant a future son if you rub either its belly or nose. And judging from how worn down both the nose and belly are, it would seem like a lot of people want sons.
It’s after passing through an artificial cave that you get the first amazing views of the East Sea off in the distance past the twisted red pines and the stone lanterns that line the 108 stairs. These 108 stairs are meant to symbolize the 108 delusions of the mind in Buddhism. But before heading straight towards the main temple courtyard, hang a left. It’s along this pathway that you’ll come to an outdoor shrine dedicated to Yaksayeorae-bul (The Future Buddha). And continuing, you’ll come to a rock outcropping with a golden Jijang-bosal (The Bodhisattva of the Afterlife) sitting all alone on the shoreline. It’s also from this rock outcropping that you can get some amazing pictures of the sea and the temple.
Back on the stairs, and heading straight, you’ll cross over a bridge that allows entry to the main temple courtyard. Along the way, you can toss a coin for good luck. Just past the entry gate, and just to your left, you’ll see a three story stone pagoda with four lions at its base. These four lions are mean to symbolize the four basic human emotions: love, sorrow, anger, and joy.
Now with the main hall to your right, this beautifully built Daeung-jeon Hall is large and ornate. Surrounding the exterior walls to this hall are Palsang-do murals (The Eight Scenes from the Buddha’s Life) and a painting dedicated to Naong Hyegeun and the Divine Sea god of the East Sea, hearkening back to the origin myth of the temple. As for the interior of the main hall, you’ll find a triad of statues under a large red canopy (datjib). In the centre sits Seokgamoni-bul (The Historical Buddha). This statue is joined on either side by Yaksayeorae-bul (The Medicine Buddha) and Amita-bul (The Buddha of the Western Paradise). To the right of this main altar is a mural dedicated to Chilseong (The Seven Stars) and a Vulture Peak (Yeongsan Hoesang-do) mural.
To the immediate left of the main hall is a large, jovial, golden statue dedicated to Podae-hwasang, again. Next to this statue, for obvious reasons, there’s a Yongwang-dang dedicated to the Dragon King (Yongwang). The Dragon King looks out towards the sea, perhaps longingly looking towards his Dragon Palace (Yonggung). Also in the main courtyard are a set of subterranean stairs that leads into a cavernous shrine hall with a statue of Yaksayeorae-bul inside.
The final thing a visitor can explore, besides the giant golden good luck twin pigs next to the opening to the subterranean cave, is the elevated statue dedicated to Gwanseeum-bosal (The Bodhisattva of Compassion). The serenely smiling Bodhisattva is situated up a set of uneven stairs. This towering statue is known as the Haesu Gwaneeum Daebo, which means “Sea Water Bodhisattva of Compassion Statue,” in English. On all sides, the Bodhisattva is surrounded by shrubbery and slender monk statues. It’s also from these heights that you get a breath-taking view of both the temple and the sea. So take your time and enjoy the view, you’ve earned it!
HOW TO GET THERE: There are two ways that you can get to Haedong Yonggungsa Temple. One is to simply get off at Jangsan subway station, stop #201, on the second line. From there, you can catch a taxi that will take about 25 minutes and set you back around 10,000 won.
You can take a taxi, which is quicker, or you can take the bus. From the Haeundae subway stop, stop #203 on the second line, you’ll need to exit out exit #7. From there, catch Bus #181 to get to Haedong Yonggungsa Temple. The ride takes about 45 minutes, and you’ll need to walk the five minutes up hill from where the bus lets you off.
OVERALL RATING: 9/10. While not as historically significant as Beomeosa Temple, it more than makes up for it with its natural beauty. While Haedong Yonggungsa Temple can get quite busy, especially on weekends or holidays, it’s well worth the effort to see one of Korea’s most unique temples.
The twelve zodiac generals at the entry of the temple.The seven story stone pagoda with the tire shrine at its base.The amazing view of the East Sea as you make your descent down the 108 stairs.The view of the main temple courtyard at Haedong Yonggungsa Temple.The beautiful dragon sculpture in front of the Daeung-jeon Hall.One of the murals that adorns the main hall.A look inside the Daeung-jeon Hall.The golden Podae Hwasang next to the main hall.The beautiful view of the temple and the East Sea from the statue of Gwanseeum-bosal.And the beautiful statue of Gwanseeum-bosal (The Bodhisattva of Compassion).
This is a local repost of an essay I wrote for The National Interest. Like everyone else, watching the brutality of the US police in the last few weeks has been genuinely shocking. So this essay discusses how a police force with a reputation for brutality during a previous dictatorship came a long way.
This is based on this original tweet thread.
The short version is that the South Korean police haven’t gone through the militarization the US police has. And South Korean police don’t face a heavily armed citizenry, so they don’t need to engage in an arms race against their own people. The result is a disarmed, de-escalatory police culture, which, as an American accustomed to the stormtrooper look and pose of US cops, I find just fantastic. Interactions with the police here are far less fraught and intimidating.
The full essay follows the jump:
The protests in the United States over George Floyd’s death have been gone global. The debate over racism and policing has spilled into other countries, as has a corollary debate about police tactics. Polling consistently shows greater concern about American police behavior than the actions of the protestors, and the list of incidents of police brutality is growing. As police behavior appears unchanged after two weeks of harsh tactics, the demands against the police are now spilling into full-blown efforts to defund departments altogether. A large debate about policing will grip the US in the coming months.
As an American residing in South Korea, the difference in police behavior has long struck me as one of the largest institutional differences and one almost never remarked upon. The following points stem from this sprawling tweet thread on this issue. As Americans look for new models of policing short of the extreme choice of closing departments altogether, South Korea is a nice example of what humane, community policing can be.
During its period of dictatorship, South Korea’s police were quite harsh. (Check this valuable thread for the long take, and this superb movie.) In the 1990s, as democracy enrooted itself, police reform followed. The South Korean police now practice a low-intensity, de-escalatory fashion of community policing I daresay would stun – and delight – most Americans.
For starters, the police are here far more approachable and less intimidating. Wearing regular uniforms and usually disarmed, the sense of anxiety common in American interactions with the police is far lower. There is a conscious effort to avoid the ‘stormtrooper’ look – heavy kit, jackboots, body armor, and so on – so in fashion in US police departments now.
Similarly the macho, ‘warrior-cop’ ethos which has characterized American post-9/11 policing is almost nonexistent here. The kind of domineering arrogance of the police officer in Sandra Bland’s minor traffic stop, and terrifying physical confrontation into which it quickly spiraled, would provoke national soul-searching if it happened here.
This community policing approach is facilitated by the total lack of militarization. As is now well-known, the US Defense Department has donated military-grade kit, weapons, and vehicles to US police departments for several decades. As with shift toward the warrior-cop mentality, 9/11 and notion that police were now the frontline of homeland security against imminent terrorist threats appear to have driven the military bulking up of US departments. Nothing like this has happened here despite the seemingly better militarization rationale of living right next to North Korea. I simply cannot imagine the public outcry here if the police had armored vehicles or routinely carried long guns.
That raises the next big difference – that the South Korean police are usually unarmed. Obviously in dire circumstances, the necessary weaponry is available; South Korea, like most countries, has SWAT-style specialized police units. But the average cop on the beat does carry a weapon, and even the riot police are usually unarmed. This is more feasible than in the US, because gun control is very strict here. The South Korean police are not in an arms-race with their own citizens, as American police are, nor do South Koreans form anything like the armed paramilitaries we saw during the ‘liberate’ protests last month.
Because an unarmed police face an unarmed population, riot squads need not pursue the aggressive tactics widely seen in the US in the last two weeks. The riot police here pursue a de-escalation strategy colloquially known as the ‘lipstick line‘. So when hundreds of thousands of South Koreans protested for months against their corrupt president a few years back, nothing remotely like what is happening in the US now happened here. As in the US today, the entire country was in ferment; huge numbers of people hit the streets week after week for months; and everyone had cellphones. But it all went down peacefully, with almost no injuries; police excess was never even in an issue in the media debate around the marches
Importantly, all these elements flow together to create a healthier, less militant, less domineering police culture and protest experience. Strict restraints on gun ownership mean the police do not need to kit up like Darth Vader. Disarmed police, less nervous about gun violence against them, can then pursues less aggressive street tactics. Moderate, restrained police tactics then signal to protestors that the cops are not a repressive opposition force in a street clash, but facilitators of the protestors’ constitutional right to assemble. Less provoked by the police, the protestors then behave better too, and any troublemakers, looters, and so on are much easier to identify.
The US, by contrast, has seen the opposite: harsh tactics inciting angry protesting and encouraging even larger protests the next day. The Koreans’ gentler tactics also dramatically reduce the likelihood of these disturbing videos of police brutality leaking out for weeks now.
How to get there in the US is a tough question. Breaking down police praetorianism and restoring civilian – i.e., mayoral – control over departments strikes me as the first step. But the larger point is that modern policing does not have to look like US police departments today – military gear, aggressive tactics, rogue behavior, choke-holds, and so on. These are US policy choices which can be changed, and there are other models out there.Robert E Kelly
Department of Political Science & Diplomacy
Pusan National University
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