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Jeongnimsa-ji Temple Site – 정림사지 (Buyeo, Chungcheongnam-do)
The Jeongnimsa-ji Temple Site is located in central Buyeo, Chungcheongnam-do. The Jeongnimsa-ji Temple Site was located at the centre of Sabi (modern-day Buyeo), when the Baekje Kingdom (18 B.C. – 660 A.D.) capital moved from Ungjin (modern-day Gongju) in the spring of 538 A.D. Sabi was the capital of the Baekje Kingdom from 538 to 660 A.D. until the fall of the kingdom. When the capital was moved, King Seong of Baekje (r. 523-554) had Sabi divided into five parts which included the north, south, east, west, and central part of the city. The royal Baekje palace was located in the northernmost part of the capital, while Jeongnimsa Temple was located right in the centre of the ancient capital of the Baekje Kingdom. And the entire capital of Sabi was surrounded by two layers of defence. The outer layer of defence was the Busosan Fortress, which guarded the capital from the side where the nearby mountains left open. The inner defence was the Naseong City Wall, which encircled the entire capital.
The first excavation of the Jeongnimsa-ji Temple Site took place from 1942 to 1943 during Japanese Colonial Rule (1910-45) by Japanese Kazuo Fujisawa. During this dig, an inscription that read “8th year of Taepyeong, Mujin Jeongnimsa Temple Daejangdangcho” was discovered on a piece of tile from the lecture hall site. From this inscription a few things can be discerned; first, the 8th year of Taepyeong corresponds to the year 1028, which was when King Hyeongjong of Goryeo (r. 1009-1031) reigned. It’s from this excavation that the temple and temple site became known as the Jeongnimsa-ji Temple Site.A computer model of what Jeongnimsa Temple probably looked like. The Jeongnimsa-ji Temple Site. The picture was taken anywhere from 1909-1945. (Picture is courtesy of the National Museum of Korea). Safety first! A picture of the Five-Story Stone Pagoda at Jeongnimsa Temple Site. The picture was taken anywhere from 1909-1945. (Picture courtesy of the National Museum of Korea).
In 1979 and 1980, a full-scale excavation took place at the temple site by the Chungnam National University Museum. It was at this time that the size and arrangement of the temple were discovered. And that the 1028 former date of the temple’s founding was in fact a rebuild. A number of statues, roof tiles, and pottery from the Baekje Kingdom and Goryeo Dynasty (918-1392) were discovered at this time. This excavation was followed-up by the Buyeo National Research Institute of Cultural Heritage from 2008 to 2010, when they rediscovered the entire temple complex that now included the east-west ascension at the northern end of the corridor and the northern seungbang area behind the auditorium site.
According to more recent archaeological work and investigation, and according to the “Reconsideration of the Construction Period of the Jeongnimsaji Temple Site” by Kyung-Baek Tahk, Jeongnimsa Temple was first built after the capital moved from Gongju to Buyeo. This is confirmed by the work he has done by conducting palemagnetic (the study of magnetic fields recorded in rocks, sediment, or archaeological materials) analysis. This analysis was conducted on the fireplace at the bottom of the Jungmun-ji Gate (Middle Gate Site) that was recently discovered. From this analysis, it’s believed that the temple was built around 625 A.D. (give or take 20 years on either side of this year). Previously, the founding of the temple was based upon the arrangement of the auxiliary buildings. But it’s hard to determine exactly when a temple was first founded based upon the arrangement of buildings, since these buildings can be relocated during a temple’s lengthy history. That’s why the discovery of the fireplace is so important to better understanding the history and founding of Jeongnimsa Temple. Another interesting discovery was made at the Jeongnimsa-ji Temple Site by using the fireplace soil as a benchmark for exploring the soil at other sites in and around the temple site like the Five-Story Stone Pagoda at Jeongnimsa Temple Site. By comparing the soil at both sites at the Jeongnimsa-ji Temple Site, it was discovered that the current Five-Story Stone Pagoda at Jeongnimsa Temple Site was built upon the foundation for an older wooden pagoda. All this changes the former belief that the temple was built in the late 500’s. Now, it looks as though the temple was built a little later than previously thought.
In total, the Jeongnimsa-ji Temple Site is home to the Five-Story Stone Pagoda at Jeongnimsa Temple Site, which is National Treasure #9; the Stone Seated Buddha at Jeongnimsa Temple Site, which is Korean Treasure #108; and the Jeongnimsa-ji Temple Site is Historic Site #301.
Admission to the Jeongnimsa-ji Temple Site is: adults 1,500 won – teenagers 900 won – children 700 wonTemple Site Layout
You first approach the temple site from the south. After paying your admission fee and passing through the entry gate, you’ll find the pond off in the distance. The beautiful rectangular pond frames the temple site grounds which run north to south in a straight line. About 50 metres beyond the temple site pond is the Jungmun-ji Gate (Middle Gate Site). The elevated foundation’s size would have supported a gate structure that measured 11.3 m in length and 5.3 m in width. The foundation of this Goryeo-era entry gate was made using trimmed stones.
Beyond the Jungmun-ji Gate by some 14 metres is the Five-Story Stone Pagoda at Jeongnimsa Temple Site. The Baekje-era five-story pagoda stands atop a single narrow foundation platform. Stone pillars are fixed to the middle and corners of each side of the platform. There are large cut brick stones between the roof stones. As for the roof stones, they are both thin and quite wide. Additionally, the roof stones raise at each corner of the five-story structure. Interestingly, the pagoda has a similar look and feel to that of a wooden pagoda. This pagoda and the Stone Pagoda at Mireuksa Temple Site in Iksan, Jeollabuk-do are the only two extant Baekje Kingdom pagodas that still stand to this date.
Also rather interestingly, when the Baekje Kingdom was defeated by the combined military forces of Tang China (618–690, 705–907 A.D.) and the Silla Kingdom (57 B.C. – 935 A.D.) and annexed by Tang China in 660, the Baekje Kingdom was divided into five military administered regions (to which the Silla Kingdom reticently assented). The Tang general, Gen. Su Dingfang (591-667 A.D.), or Gen. So Jeongbang in Korean, made an inscription on the foundation of the pagoda. In this inscription, written in Chinese characters, Gen. Su Dingfang wrote “a monument for the conquest of Baekje.” Afterwards, the pagoda was known for a long time as the “Pyeongje-tap,” which means “A pagoda for conquering Baekje” because of what Gen. Su Dingfang wrote. This inscription, which can still be seen to this day, is a very important source in the study of Korean history.The inscription on the Five-Story Stone Pagoda at Jeongnimsa Temple Site from 1920. (Picture courtesy of the National Museum of Korea).
To the left and right of the Five-Story Stone Pagoda at Jeongnimsa Temple Site are the West-Side Building Site and the East-Side Building Sites, as well as corridors travelling from the Jungmun-ji Gate up to the either side of the Geumdang-ji (Main Hall Site). Both corridors that run north to south measure about 50 metres in length and stop at the West-Side Building Site and the East-Side Building Site. Both of these adjoining building sites measure 39.3 metres long and 12.1 metres wide. They were probably used as monks’ dorms and auxiliary buildings. Both sites were severely damaged. And it was at both of these sites that roof tiles were discovered.
Between the corridor foundations and the foundations for the building sites, and beyond the Five-Story Stone Pagoda at Jeongnimsa Temple Site, is the Geumdang-ji (Main Hall Site). This elevated foundation for the main hall is situated at the centre of the temple site grounds. Inside this main hall would have been a statue of the Buddha. The original Baekje-era platform was re-used for the Goryeo-era reconstruction of the structure. In total, and based upon its foundation, it’s believed that the main hall measured 18.75 metres long and 13.8 metres wide.
The final thing that visitors can explore, and which is now housed inside a large wooden hall, is the Stone Seated Buddha at Jeongnimsa Temple Site. Stepping inside the wooden hall, you’ll find the stone seated Buddha looking southward towards the Five-Story Stone Pagoda at the Jeongnimsa Temple Site. The stone statue was originally built during the Goryeo Dynasty (918-1392), after Jeongnimsa Temple was destroyed and then later resurrected to grow prosperous, once more. And the greatest indication of this prosperity, in part, is the construction of the Stone Seated Buddha at Jeongnimsa Temple Site. The head and crown of the statue aren’t original, but were later added. The details of the body are hard to define as they have been severely damaged. However, with that being said, the statue does appear to be an image of Birojana-bul (The Buddha of Cosmic Energy) since the right hand seems to be holding the index finger of the left hand. The large statue of the Buddha sits on an octagonal three-story pedestal. The top story of the pedestal looks like a lotus flower in full bloom. The second story of the pedestal, which is largely damaged, has large panels for decoration reliefs. And the bottom story of the pedestal is shaped like an upside-down lotus flower. The current location of the Stone Seated Buddha at Jeongnimsa Temple Site was the former location for the lecture hall at Jeongnimsa Temple. And perhaps most interesting of hall is that the refined tiles found at this site point to the fact that this Buddha was probably the main Buddha statue inside the Goryeo-era main hall that was reconstructed at this time.
It should be noted that east of the temple site grounds is the Jeongnimsa-ji Museum, which is also worth a visit.How To Get There
To get to the Jeongnimsa-ji Temple Site from the Buyeo Intercity Bus Terminal, you can simply walk. You’ll need to walk east from the terminal and cross over Sabi-ro – 사비로, which is a large multi-lane road. You’ll need to continue past Jungang-ro – 중앙로 road. In total, this eastward walk should be about 100 metres. Finally, you’ll need to head south down the Seoktap-ro – 석탑로 road for about 100 metres. It’s from here that you’ll see the Jeongnimsa-ji Temple grounds. The admission area is located in the southern part of the grounds. At most, the walk should take you 10 minutes over 300 metres.
But if you’d rather take a taxi from the Buyeo Intercity Bus Terminal, you can. The ride will only take 3 minutes, and it’ll cost you around 3,300 won.Overall Rating: 7/10
The Jeongnimsa-ji Temple Site is well preserved and maintained in downtown Buyeo, Chungcheongnam-do. The obvious highlight, which also just so happens to be a National Treasure, is the Five-Story Stone Pagoda at Jeongnimsa Temple Site. This is only one of two extant Baekje-era pagodas still standing in Korea. In addition to this beautiful pagoda is the accompanying Stone Seated Buddha at Jeongnimsa Temple Site, which highlights the history and resurrection of an integral temple to both the Baekje Kingdom and Goryeo Dynasty. The overall atmosphere at the Jeongnimsa-ji Temple Site is beautifully serene.The rectangular pond at the entry of the temple site grounds. A look towards the Five-Story Stone Pagoda at Jeongnimsa Temple Site from the Jungmun-ji Gate. The eastern foundations for the corridors that once led up to the main hall. An up-close of the Five-Story Stone Pagoda at Jeongnimsa Temple Site. The foundation for the Geumdang-ji Hall (Main Hall Site) and the hall that now houses the Stone Seated Buddha at Jeongnimsa Temple Site. The foundations for the western corridors and the West-Side Building Site at the Jeongnimsa-ji Temple Site. A look across the foundation for the main hall towards the Five-Story Stone Pagoda at Jeongnimsa Temple Site. The entry to the hall that now houses the Stone Seated Buddha at Jeongnimsa Temple Site. The elaborate door-knocker to the hall. The Stone Seated Buddha at Jeongnimsa Temple Site. A different angle of the Korean Treasure. And the view that the Stone Seated Buddha at Jeongnimsa Temple Site enjoys.—
Dale's Korean Temple Adventures YouTube
The Iraq War after Twenty Years: There was a Neocon Theory of the War, but It was Packed with Tricky Assumptions and Demanded Excellent Execution. So yeah, Let’s Never Do that Again
I do think there was a theory for the war, but the neocons did not elaborate it well and it did not convince the public. Hence the emphasis on WMD instead. As Wolfowitz noted, a lot of people in the Bush 2 White House wanted to depose Saddam, and post-9/11 WMD was a rationale they could all agree on. But neocons like Krauthammer, Wolfowitz, Kristol, and the rest did have an intellectual framework for the war, even if it turned out all wrong.
Here are my thoughts on the tenth anniversary of the war (one, two, three). And here is a response from back then by my friend Tom Nichols.
I think these comments hold up pretty well ten years on – particularly my effort to sketch a neocon logic for the war (post two). I think that is valuable, even now, because it became fashionable to describe the war as foolish American hubris after it all went bad. Then it seemed ‘complementary’ to suggest that neocons had some kind of framework rather than just being ‘cowboy unilateralists.’
I also remain genuinely embarrassed that I supported the war for so long, which I say in post one. I defended it until 2009 or so. I had students tell me, both in the US and in Korea, that I was the only professor they had who defended the war. Yikes. This was probably my worst professional judgment in my 25 years in political science.
Two things more I would add looking back:
1. Iraq has become an all-purpose excuse for every dictator in the world to declaim American imperialism. This is an important reason to never do anything like this again. American power in the world is not just its material weight, but its soft power too. Others don’t balance US power, in part because they trust us to be more liberal and responsible than China or Russia. But the neocons never thought the ‘unipolar moment’ would recede, never had a lengthy shadow of the future in their planning, never thought the war would catch up with us.
2. Restrainers need to move on from Iraq. I support restraint too. I think we should slowly disengage from the Gulf. I don’t mind if South Korea or Japan build nuclear weapons, because they should be managing their own defense more. And I think the European pillar of NATO needs to get its act together. But too much of the restraint school sees every conflict since Iraq as a re-run of Bush-era hegemony-seeking. Iraq sent a lot of otherwise interesting analysts off the rails – Chalmers Johnson, Glenn Greenwald, the Quincy Institute.. Restrainers need to have more foreign policy wisdom than just saying the US should do less, that intervention is a perpetual slide toward another Iraq. You really see this in a lot of the terrible ‘restraint’ commentary on Ukraine, which would essentially sacrifice the country to Putin as some of kind latter-day US penance for Iraq. What restrainers really need is a theory of when they would tolerate US intervention and how much—Robert E Kelly
Department of Political Science & Diplomacy
Pusan National University
그래서 vs 그러니까 Which Means “AND?” | Korean FAQ
그래서 and 그러니까 are two different ways to say "and" when starting a sentence, or when connecting two sentences - or when used on their own. But while they both mean "and," they have unique uses and can't be exchanged for one another in most cases.
In this video I'll explain how to use 그래서 and 그러니까, what they mean, where they come from, and how they're different.
The post 그래서 vs 그러니까 Which Means “AND?” | Korean FAQ appeared first on Learn Korean with GO! Billy Korean.—
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그래서 vs 그러니까 Which Means “AND?” | Korean FAQ
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Colonial Korea – Tourism in Korea
During the Japanese Colonial Rule in Korea (1910-1945), tourism in Korea was an expanding and expansive trade. In fact, in 1936 alone, the number of Japanese inbound tourists to Korea numbered 42,586 individuals. In total, these people spent a total of 107,688,000 yen (per person, this equals 2,529 yen). And even though it only represented a small fraction, just 4 percent, of Japan’s overall trade (including imports and exports), it was a welcomed influx of capital. And the reason that Korea became such a popular destination for the Japanese was that it helped to justify the annexation of Korea. It did this through a number of ways including through tourist slogans and propaganda that helped promote the notion of a “return” and reunion of the Japanese and Korean people.
Furthermore, the Japanese Imperial government increased investments in Korea, whether it be through infrastructure or transportation, by convincing rich Japanese businessmen that the Korean Peninsula was ripe with endless investment opportunities including tourism. As such, the Japanese government through the JTB (The Japanese Tourism Bureau) and the CGK (Colonial Government-General of Korea) promoted Korea to the Japanese population as the most picturesque and historically “authentic” location in the Japanese empire that was filled with decaying ruins, old customs, beautiful women, and luxury accommodations (that could and would be built by the Japanese). In doing this, and through the guise of both business opportunities and tourism, the Japanese government created an image of imperialism, while also promoting a sense of nostalgia. In the end, Japan was able to curate an effective business plan that modernized Korean infrastructure like rail and roads, while also earning additional money through spending and taxation through tourism on the Korean Peninsula during Japanese Colonial Rule to help support their aggressive expansionist military campaigns.The Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905). (Picture courtesy of History.com) Reasons for Japan’s Growth as an East Asian Empire (1894-1912)
As a nation, Japan started to appear as an imperial power following two military campaigns. The first of these victories took place during the First Sino-Japanese War (1894-1895) and the Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905). With these two key victories, Japan emerged as a nation ready to enter the world stage as a dominant force. As such, Japan took their first steps to become a regional colonial power. Soon Japan attempted to find opportunities for eager businesses in new colonies through Japanese goods. With this in mind, colonial administrators spearheaded opportunities through industrial development and tourism by searching for new resources and customers. Japan would go on to develop colonial opportunities in Taiwan, Korea, Manchuria, as well as territories in Siberia and the South Pacific. But of all these colonies and territories, it was the opportunities found in Korea that excited the imagination of Japan’s citizens and governmental officials the most. There were several reasons for this.
The first of these reasons was the close geographically proximity found between the two nations. Also, and because of its location between Japan and China, the Korean Peninsula acted as a key strategic location, as well. For this reason, Korea was a prime target for intensive and extensive infrastructure and industrial investment by the Japanese. It was in their best interest. In fact, and as early as the 1890s, colonial administrators, companies, and the military were all involved in developing extensive transportation systems, as well as producing communication links and military facilities. This was done by building harbors, bridges, railways, road, and urban tram systems. Furthermore, major banks and companies like the Bank of Chosen, Mitsui Heavy Industries, Ogura Mining Company, the Japan Mail Steamship Company (Nippon Yusen Kaisha, or NYK for short), and the Japan Mail Steamship Company (or SMR for short), to name but a few, meticulously calculated import versus export costs and the profit margin found in this enterprise. Such things as the import and export of agricultural products (rice and cotton), the import of military supplies and weapons, and the mobilization of troops to help reinforce the Manchurian front were all key factors.
One example of this meticulous calculation can be found with the signing of the Portsmouth Treaty in 1905, which saw the Korean branch of the Japanese Imperial Railways, and which was also known as the Colonial Government Railways Company (or CGR for short), had opened-up the main north-south railway lines, the Keifu (Gyeongbu-seon) railway and the Jinsen (Incheon) line. These major railway arteries connected the major cities of the Korean Peninsula directly to the ports of Fusan (Busan), Keijo (Seoul), and Incheon. Not only did this railway system help connect and transfer daily freight and mail from the port of Shimonoseki in Japan to the ports of Korea, but it also helped transport hundreds of thousands of Japanese settlers to various destinations throughout the Korean Peninsula and beyond.
In fact, and according to statistics published by the CGK, the number of passengers increased on the state railways tenfold from 2,024,000 to 20,058,000 individuals in a span of sixteen years from 1911 to 1927. Additionally, freight increased in the same time period from 888,000 tons to 5,570,000 tons. It should come as no surprise then that the Japanese extended the mileage of tracks from 1084.7 km (674 miles) to 2341.6 km (1455 miles). All of this resulted in the growth of revenue nine-fold from 4,095,000 yen to 36,364,000 yen in 1929 according to the CGK.
The second reason that the Japanese government was excited about potential opportunities in Korea is Korea’s strategic location in connection to transportation and as a potential commercial hub for the expansion of the Japanese Empire. More specifically, major corporations and ambitious politicians invested heavily in developing tourism and cultural destinations in Korea like historical parks, museums, zoos, botanical gardens, hot springs, hotels, and mountain resorts. Tourism was a gateway for many Japanese entrepreneurs to help profit off the newly acquired colony.
And the third reason for such interest in Korea by the Japanese was that the Korean Peninsula was the only colony where the Colonial Government-General of Korea (1910-1945) sponsored more than four decades of continuous archaeological and historical surveys in order to help maximize the collection of documents, register artifacts, and excavate buried objects; which, in turn, would act as a major historical destination for Japanese tourists. This was particularly the case with Korean Buddhist temples and temple sites. Because of the two nation’s shared religious ancestry, Japanese tourists flocked to historic cities like Gyeongju to immerse themselves in Korea’s religious past. It’s also another reason why the Colonial Government-General of Korea invested so heavily in repairing and maintaining Korea’s Buddhist temples. As a result, the Imperial University in Japan had archaeologists that were willing and eager to conduct surveys and research in Korea, especially since they were prevented from doing so in Japan according to the Imperial Household Agency.Logos of Korea’s national railways, 1906–1945. (Picture courtesy of Wikipedia). State Sponsored Tourism (1912-1945)
From the beginning of the Japanese Colonization of Korea, and even before, Japan’s tourism policy was directed at promoting international trade and commerce. The “Welcome Society of Japan,” or the “Kihinkai” (Society of VIPs) in Japanese, was Japan’s very first tourist board. It was founded in 1893. The board was sanctioned by the Imperial Household, and its board members included such individuals as high-ranking foreign ambassadors, dignitaries, aristocrats, and leading entrepreneurs who operated the society from the Tokyo Chamber of Commerce. The aims of the society, according to the preface to their 1908 edition of the “Guidebook for Tourists” was “bringing within reach of tourists the means of accurately observing the features of the country, and the characteristics of the people; aiding them to visit places of scenic beauty; enabling them to view objects of art and enter into social or commercial relations with the people; in short, according them all facilities and conveniences toward the accomplishment of their several aims, their indirectly promoting, in however small a degree, the cause of international intercourse and trade.”
Also around this time was the development of the much larger corporate entity, the “Japan Tourist Bureau,” or JTB for short, which was established in 1912 at the Japan Imperial Railways Corporate Headquarters (or JIR for short). Through their connections, JTB was able to convince shipping magnates, department stores, and the Tokyo Imperial Hotel management, to name but a few, who were asked to join in the venture that aimed at transforming and transporting Japan.The cover to the “Map of Japan for Tourists” in 1897 published by the “Welcome Society of Japan.” (Picture courtesy of Bakumatsuya Rare Books and Photos).
And the immediate financial goal of the JTB, which focused on various tourist projects, was to help secure new foreign revenue to help alleviate Japan’s severe economic crunch that was happening because of the drain caused by expensive military equipment and expansionist campaigns. And the other goal of JTB, which seemed a bit more diplomatic, was to find a way to help promote a more modern and civilized image of Japan to the world. The reason for this is that Japan’s reputation had taken a beating, especially after the Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905).
In total, JTB opened colonial outposts in Taiwan, Manchuria, and Korea in 1912. This was the very same year that the organization was founded in Tokyo. The goals of the JTB Chosen Branches in Korea, and the Colonial Government Railways Company, was the same as their parent company. As such, their goal was to attract as many passengers as possible to Colonial Korea, so that the Japanese government and their leading companies could recoup some of their enormous financial investments made while building infrastructure on the Korean Peninsula which had and would continue to help facilitate Japanese efforts in East Asia through transportation and communications.
By 1914, various colonial branches of the JTB were distributing some 3,000 maps printed in English. Not only were they covering Japan, but they also included Seoul (Keijo), Dairen (Dalian, China), and Taipei (Taihoku). At the end of World War I, and with Europe ravaged by economic inflation and crisis, the JTB found it difficult to attract foreign travelers to East Asia. Europeans simply weren’t buying travel coupons; so instead, the JTB created an alternate business plan in 1918. This new business plan saw JTB starting to sell packaged tours to the colonies for domestic Japanese consumption. As a result, JTB started to provide Japanese language advertising that involved printing and distributing travel brochures, maps, and postcards of seasonal attractions. Also produced were various travel magazines.
With the rise of domestic ticket sales in Japan, the JTB persuaded major department stores to sell these tourist packages. And the peak of outbound tourism from Japan peaked from 1925-1935 in the pre-war years. These tourists included a wide range of classes and occupations. Some tourists were teachers, while others were students, soldiers, and businessmen. These tourists were typically of the educated class that were hungry for history and Japan’s old and new place in it. Tourism, in time, would become Japan’s fourth most important source of foreign revenue behind only cotton, raw silk, and silk products.
Because of the purposeful destruction of documentation, it’s hard to get a complete and accurate accounting of just how many tourists not only traveled to Korea but to other Japanese colonies, as well. The nearest we can get is from the JTB in Manchuria in 1940. In total, the JTB conducted a total of 9,108 guided tours to both Manchuria and Korea. Of these tours, which comprised of some 398,299 tour group members, they included Manchurians, Japanese, and foreigners participants. These figures are but a glimpse into the vibrant tourism industry conducted by the Japanese state in the late 1930s and early 1940s before its complete collapse in 1943.“The Special War Map of China, Corea, and Japan” from 1894. (Picture courtesy of the University of Manchester). The Organization of Tourism Information through Guidebooks
The very first documented tour group of private citizens to visit Korea and Manchuria took place in 1906. The tour was organized by Japan’s leading daily newspaper, the Asahi Newspaper Company. With an eye on selling more newspaper subscriptions, the Asahi Newspaper Company ran an advertisement for a cruise to the great battle sites in Korea and Manchuria that had previously been featured in best-selling postcards, silk prints, and photos. The first announcement recruiting passengers for the “Cruise Touring Manchuria and Korea” appeared in the Asahi June 22, 1906 edition of the newspaper. And just three days after making this advertisement in their newspaper, the company had sold out all three classes of cabin tickets. In total, some eighty passengers were booked for the trip.
Following the success of this tour in 1906, subsequent discount tours were sold out in large numbers. This initial event gave birth to education packaged tours from Japan to Korea.
By the late 1910s, there was a growing demand by the millions of customers and potential customers to know more information about Korea. Japanese transportation companies like the Colonial Government Railways Company (CGR) joined forces with JTB to produce and distribute large numbers of detailed guidebooks, maps, train schedules, and picture postcards that captured scenic destinations, Korean people, and Korean customs. These items were sold at ticket offices at major piers, railway stations, and department stores in various cities like Tokyo, Seoul, Jijong, and Taiwan.
Most of this tourist information and items, even though they were produced using various publishers, were generally pretty uniform. Overall, this material tended to be modeled on an earlier generation of Victorian-era handbooks for Japan penned by foreign advisers, educators, and experts that were hired by the Meiji government. Typically, the first chapter of any guidebook from this time period covered what was considered essential travel information such as a JTB office, hotels, transportation links, fares, banking, customs, and post offices. An introduction would also include an overview of the land such as topography, population, history, and climate.
Also included in the guidebook would be a map insert, schedules for ships, trains, and transfer information. And since most passengers arrived by ship docking in Fusan (Busan) from either Osaka, Kobe, or Shimonoseki, the first place that was recommended on any itinerary from Fusan (Busan) was Taikyu (Daegu) along the Keifusen Railway Line (Seoul/Keijo to Busan/Fusan).A page from the 1910 “Useful Notes and Itineraries for Travelling in Japan” published by the “Welcome Society of Japan.” (Picture courtesy of the Bakumatsuya Rare Books and Photos).
As for the main section of the guidebooks, they would typically cover major scenic, cultural, and business destinations for Japanese travelers found at major cities in Korea along the Colonial Government Railways Company (CGR) lines, as well as side trips to various destinations along the seaside, hot springs, and resorts that were linked by buses or shuttle services. More specifically, city tours like those in Seoul (Keijo) were planned as half-day excursions beginning at the Chosen Jingu (Main Shinto Shrine in Seoul on Mt. Namsan) and included Namdaemun (South Gate), the Botanical Garden and Zoo, the Chosen Sotokufu headquarters building (CGK), and the CGK Museum that was located at Gyeongbokgung Palace, as well as the Fine Arts Museum at Deoksugung Palace.
As for the appendix of several guidebooks from Japan, it was largely represented by major advertisers. Since businesses like tram and taxi companies, inns and hotels, pharmacies and resorts were largely owned and operated by the Japanese in Korea, it made sense that they would also attempt to advertise their own business directly to the consumer; namely, Japanese tourists.“Korean Beauties.” (Picture courtesy of JTB Chosen Branch (1939); courtesy of the International Research Center for Japanese Studies Library Archives). Tourism Guidebook Photography and Illustrations
A typical layout of tourist photos and illustrations in guidebooks, postcards, and photo albums juxtaposed images of “old Korea” with “now” images of Korea. The former category identified the old Korea with old customs and traditions through grainy black-and-white photos. In these “old Korea” photos, you’d find Korean women engaged in everyday chores like washing clothes in the river, ironing at home, or carrying jars on their heads or children on their backs. And Korean men were seldom portrayed in these “old Korean” photos. However, if they were, they were typically street vendors, rickshaw drivers, or old yangban noblemen relaxing or smoking in their distinctive black traditional hats.
These “old Korea” images were contrasted with “new” Korea images featuring recently constructed modern colonial structures built by the Japanese. Examples of these can be seen in public works buildings, the CGK headquarters, banks, post offices, museums, train stations, schools, and hospital. This was also the case for archaeological or temple work that contrasted the dilapidated former structure with the recently renovated or rebuilt Japanese efforts on the old Korean structures contrasting Japan’s efforts with the way that Korea had long neglected their most treasured of structures and/or sites.
An example of Bulguksa Temple before and after Japanese efforts. The picture on the left is of Bulguksa Temple in 1914, and the picture on the right is from 1935. (Both pictures courtesy of the National Museum of Korea).
This visual methodology was a tried and true method of contrasting the old (bad) with the new (good). This strategy was employed in a variety of manners by the Japanese beyond guidebooks like in CGK controlled media, daily newspapers, and school textbooks. All of this was done to show the success of Japan’s “civilizing mission” on the rest of the world and especially on the Korean Peninsula. Furthering this visual propaganda was supplemental material that explained the inseparable nature found between Koreans and the Japanese from the beginning of time. Here’s an example found in print from the CGR during the 1930s:
“From the time of Empress Jingu’s conquest [ca. 3rd century] of the Three Han (Sankan), Chosen is the country that has had the closest relationship with our nation, a tie that can never be severed. On a clear day, one can see the mountains of Fusan in the country of Chosen across the sea. It is now only an eight-hour trip across the ocean from Shimonoseki on a boat that leaves morning and night. From there, one can transfer onto a train. In olden times, Kangoku [Korea] was formerly an independent nation, but in August 1910 it was incorporated into the empire. Since then the Chosenjin have become our brethren for all time to come. Since our races have merged again just as in ancient times, the future prosperity and happiness of our respective countries depends on forging very close ties, just as in olden times [mukashi] when Mimana [the ancient Gaya Confederation] was our colony. . . . Now anyone can travel in Korea and experience the same beauty and level of convenient service as we do in Naichi [Japan proper], since there is now no difference between Korea and Japan. This is the way it should be, since we are now one with many of our citizens. For students joining group tours, we wanted them to see in one glance what a warm and peaceful nation the land and people of Chosen are. Though there has been some misunderstanding in the past, in fact we are now one and the same people, as proven by the many research investigations that have been carried out by our scholars. Our nation is very concerned about the future destiny of the Chosen people, and we believe that the development of Chosen is also our happiness. So our great mission is to bring future happiness to Chosen as well as the eternal prosperity of the whole empire.”
To further reinforce this point, the archaeological “rediscovery” of Japan’s antiquity in the form of excavated sites of beautifully restored Silla temples and tombs found in Japanese photography was the most tangible evidence for the supposed common ancestry both racially and culturally. As such, the colonial travel industry played a large part in promoting this “nostalgic” image of Korea as a lost and poor country, whose shared cultural and ethnic past, was being restored to prominence once more through the superior Japanese and their “enlightened” government.Popular Destinations for Japanese Tourists
By the late 1930s, JTB operated out of Minaki, which was the largest department store chain in Korea. In total, JTB had seven outlets in the cities of Seoul (Keijo), Busan (Fusan), Daegu (Taikyu), Daejeon, Pyongyang (Heijo), Hamhung, and Wonsan. JTB had two additional outlets at Hwashin department store (formerly at Jongno First Street) and Mitsukoshi (now Shinsegye), which was located in Myeong-dong across from the Bank of Chosen. Placing these ticketing outlets at major department stores was completely strategic. JTB was attempting to cater to the upper-class (both Japanese and Korean), who visited these shopping locations and presumably had money to spend.
As for popular destinations for these tourists, the southeast corridor of the Korean Peninsula was especially popular including Gyeongju (Keishu), Busan (Fusan), and Daegu (Taikyu). These three cities were prominently displayed in several tourist guidebooks and pamphlets. For example, both Bulguksa Temple and Seokguram Hermitage were the two largest multi-year architectural reconstruction projects conducted by the Japanese and supervise by Sekino Tadashi (more on him later in future posts), who was a professor in the Tokyo University Architecture Department. He would supervise the Chosen government’s construction engineers between 1912 and 1930. And by the 1930s, the restored ruins of the ancient capital of Silla, Gyeongju (Keishu), and the newly built Gyeongju (Keishu) museum in central Gyeongju alongside Silla royal tombs, became the favourite destination for photography by Japanese tourists, foreign dignitaries, and amateur archaeologists.
Another popular destination for Japanese tourists was Pyongyang and Kaesong in the northwest corridor of the country. Typically an itinerary to this area included Kija’s Tomb, Manwoldae (Goryeo-era palace remains), and the Great Tomb of Gangseo painted tombs. Also of particular interest was the Nangnang Tombs (Rakuro). These were the restored tombs of the Han Dynasty, and they were touted as especially significant as the earliest “scientifically” excavated tombs in Asia, since no intact tombs dating back to the Han Dynasty (2nd century B.C. to 2nd century A.D.) had yet to be identified in China.
Yet another popular tourist destination in Korea was the southwest corridor. It was here that the Baekje Kingdom (Kudara) capitals of Buyeo and Gongju were located. And with Baekje archaeological discoveries of tombs, pagodas, and temples in the 1930s, this area became popular with both tourists and amateur and professional archaeologists.
The only tourist area that was far away from any commercial cities and sites was the historic Mt. Geumgangsan (Kongosan), which are known as the “Diamond Mountains” in English. The mountains have long been a popular destination for Koreans throughout history, and they are also known as a place that houses numerous historic Buddhist temples, as well. According to one Japanese tourist, the mountains were “the most spectacular natural beauty under the heavens.” As a result, the mountains were featured on CGR posters and magazines. Images of Mt. Geumgangsan were also heavily illustrated in magazines written in German and English for European consumption. From this promotion, and the mountain’s long history of being a desirable destination for hiking and religious retreats, the CGR built two mountain resorts. One was built at the Onjong-ri Station in 1915, and the other was built near Jangansa Temple in 1924 deep in the mountains as a hunting lodge and hot springs resort. It should come as no surprise then that during the 1930s that mountain climbing was the most widely advertised leisure activity. And the way that it was promoted was as a way to train one’s mind and body.Jangansa Temple in 1911. (Picture courtesy of the National Museum of Korea).
Other than Mt. Geumgangsan, other mountainous destinations that were popular in Korea for the Japanese, and especially for hikers, was Mt. Baekdusan and Mt. Jirisan. These regions were also popular for hunters looking for large game that were unavailable in Japan like tigers, bears, and wild boar.
As for nightlife in Korea’s major cities, the most often recommended choice for entertainment was hiring either Korean or Japanese female entertainers like geisha, or gisaeng in Korean, to “dance and sing for you.” In the JIR’s 1926 guidebook, it was written that “Geisha may be hired at anytime, anywhere, the charge of the dance depending upon the reputation and number of dances.” There was a high demand for these types of entertainers. In fact, it led to the establishment of a “School for Gisaeng” (Gisaeng Hakgyo) in Pyongyang. This school offered a curriculum that focused on musical instrument playing, dance, and popular songs of the day that could be sung in both Japanese and Korean according to the JTB of 1939.Conclusion
There were numerous reasons as to why Japan so heavily promoted tourism in Colonial Korea (1910-1945). Some of these reasons were based upon geography, while others focused on commerce, infrastructure, and business. Some even focused on leisure. However, all of these efforts centred on the primacy of the needs and wants of the Japanese people over any and all of their colonies including Korea. All efforts, including tourism, were an after-thought to the expansionist war efforts of the Japanese government. Tourism was successfully presented in a number of ways that affected every corner of the Korean Peninsula, which helped to fund Japan’s war efforts. One way that tourism was successfully promoted to the Japanese people was through the rebuilding and renovating of Korea’s religious and cultural past in the form of Korean Buddhism. Temples and temple sites were highly popular with the Japanese. And one of the most popular sites, for obvious reasons, was the city of Gyeongju, which is home to both Bulguksa Temple and Seokguram Hermitage. At the very heart of tourism, besides money, was a nostalgic “return” and “reunion” of the Korean and Japanese people. And the Japanese bought it up through their tourist yen. However, by 1943, the tourism industry in Colonial Korea collapsed; and just two years later, Imperial Japan would fall, as well.—
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Seongjusa-ji Temple Site – 성주사지 (Boryeong, Chungcheongnam-do)
The Seongjusa-ji Temple Site is located at the foot of Mt. Seongjusan (510.5 m) in eastern Boryeong, Chungcheongnam-do. Seongjusa Temple was first built in and around 616 A.D. by order of King Mu of Baekje (r. 600-641 A.D.). When the temple was first established, it was named Ohapsa Temple. This was done to commemorate the Baekje Kingdom’s recent victory over Silla and to pray for the souls of fallen Baekje soldiers. The Samguk Sagi, or “History of the Three Kingdoms” in English, records that in 659 A.D., and during the reign of King Uija of Baekje (r. 641-660 A.D.), a hong dokkebi, or “red goblin” in English, was seen circling the temple 6 times. Afterward, the hong dokkebi predicted the future collapse of the Baekje Kingdom (18 B.C. – 660 A.D.), which it did just a year later under the joint attack of Tang China (618–690, 705–907 A.D.) and Silla military forces.
So much about the temple’s history is linked to the monk Muyeom. Muyeom (801-888 A.D.) was said to be the eighth-generation descendant of King Muyeol of Silla (r. 654-661 A.D.). Born in 801 A.D., Muyeom entered to become a monk at the age of 13. In 821 A.D., Muyeom traveled to Tang China, where he received his certificate of enlightenment in the Seon (Chan/Zen) Sect from Magu Baozhe (b. 720?), who was a disciple of Mazu Daoyi (709-788 A.D.). In 845 A.D., Muyeom returned to the Korean Peninsula. At this time, the local aristocratic Kim Yang, who is posthumously known as “Prince Hun,” requested of King Munseong of Silla (r. 839-857 A.D.) to appoint master monk Muyeom to become the head monk of this important temple. With the appointment of Muyeom as the abbot, and with new funds to refurbish and expand the temple, the temple changed its name from Ohapsa Temple to that of Seongjusa Temple, which means “Saint Abides Temple” in English. Seongjusa Temple would become one of the Seonjong Gusan – Nine Mountain Seon Sects, and it would also be the largest temple at this time. As the abbot of Seongjusa Temple, Muyeom was heavily involved in the political affairs of the state. In total, Muyeom would leave several enlightened disciples during his 40 years at Seongjusa Temple. Posthumously, Muyeom was honoured by a royal decree with the title of “Nanghye-hwasang Baegwol” by Queen Jinseong of Silla (r. 887-897 A.D.).
Later, the temple would flourish through the Goryeo Dynasty (918-1392) and through part of the Joseon Dynasty (1392-1910), when it was partially destroyed during the Imjin War (1592-98) in 1592. The temple was then completely demolished in the 17th century leaving only artifacts strewn throughout the temple grounds.
In total, the Seongjusa-ji Temple Site is home to one National Treasure, the Stele of Buddhist Monk Nanghye at Seongjusa Temple Site, which is National Treasure #8. In addition to this National Treasure, the temple site is home to an additional four Korean Treasures. These Korean Treasures include Five-Story Stone Pagoda at Seongjusa Temple Site (T #19), the Central Three-Story Stone Pagoda at Seongjusa Temple Site (T #20) the West Three-Story Stone Pagoda at Seongjusa Temple Site (T #47) and the East Three-Story Stone Pagoda of Seongjusa Temple Site (T #2021). In addition to all these treasures, the Seongjusa-ji Temple Site is also Historic Site #307.
Special thanks to Prof. David Mason for some of this wonderful information.The Seongjusa-ji Temple Site in 1936. (Picture courtesy of the National Museum of Korea). A map of the temple site grounds. Temple Site Layout
When you first approach the temple site, and climb the stone stairs at the entry, you’ll first be welcomed by the Jungmun-ji Gate Site. Just beyond the slightly elevated foundation for the Jungmun-ji Gate Site is the Stone Lantern of Seongjusa-ji. This stone lantern, which is known as a “seokdeung” in Korean, was first constructed during late Unified Silla (668-935 A.D.). The stone lantern stands an impressive 220 cm in height, while the finial to the octagonal stone lantern is partially damaged. Backing the Stone Lantern of Seongjusa-ji Temple Site is the Five-Story Stone Pagoda at Seongjusa Temple Site (T #19). The pagoda stands in front of what’s believed to be the Geumdang-ji Main Hall Site. The Five-Story Stone Pagoda at Seongjusa Temple Site is composed of a two-story platform on which a five-story body stands. The relief of a column is carved onto each side and corner of the platform. A flat stone is placed on the platform to support the body stone. As for the body stone, both the main part of the body stone and its roof stones are made from a single block of stone. The edge to each flat roof stone turns slightly upwards at the end. The overall design of the pagoda is typical of Unified Silla (668-935 A.D.).
To the left and right of the Stone Lantern of Seongjusa-ji Temple Site and the Five-Story Stone Pagoda at Seongjusa Temple Site are the foundations for the Dongnamhwarang-ji Site and the Seonamhwarang-ji Site. Behind both the stone lantern and five-story pagoda, on the other hand, is the Geumdang-ji Main Hall Site. The elevated main hall site is fronted by stone steps. These are replicas of the original stairs that were first constructed during Unified Silla. Each side of the stone stairs are accompanied by statues of lions. Unfortunately, the originals were stolen in 1986. And in the centre of the main hall site is the base to a stone pedestal that held an image of a Buddha.
To the right of the Geumdang-ji Main Hall Site, and next to the elevated foundation for the Dongnamhwarang-ji Site, is the Samcheonbul-jeon-ji Hall Site. But it’s to the rear of the Geumdang-ji Main Hall Site that you’ll find one of the highlights to the Seongjusa-ji Temple Site. In a line, you’ll find a row of three historic pagodas. The first to the right is the East Three-Story Stone Pagoda of Seongjusa Temple Site, which is Korean Treasure #2021 as of March, 2019. Based upon its design, it’s believed that this pagoda, and the neighbouring two pagodas, were built at the same time by the same person during late Unified Silla (668-935 A.D.). This pagoda, the East Three-Story Stone Pagoda of Seongjusa Temple Site, stands 4.1 metres in height. The three-story pagoda rests upon a two-tier platform. The support stone is cut from a separate stone at the top of the platform. Additionally, there is a relief of a door with a lock and handles on the front and back of the first story of the pagoda. These are characteristic features of stone pagodas from late Unified Silla. Of the three pagodas, this was the last to be designated a Korean Treasure.
Next to the East Three-Story Stone Pagoda of Seongjusa Temple Site stands the Central Three-Story Stone Pagoda at Seongjusa Temple Site, which is Korean Treasure #20. As the name of the pagoda alludes to, this is the central pagoda in the line of three historic pagodas to the rear of the Geumdang-ji Main Hall Site. Like the East Three-Story Stone Pagoda of Seongjusa Temple Site, the central pagoda stands atop a two-story platform, and it also possesses a three-story body stone. Additionally, pole relief patterns are engraved on all four sides and on the corners of each story of the platform. A flat stone is placed between the platform and the first story of the body. Both the body and roof stones for the body are made from one piece of stone. And the first story of the body is much larger than the second and third stories of the body. The pagoda is largely unadorned, which is typical of Silla-era designs, all but for the south facing side of the pagoda. The south face of the pagoda is adorned with a relief of a door. The middle of this door is carved with an image of a lock, while below the lock are a pair of ring-shaped door fasteners that look like an animal. Overall, this style of pagoda dates back to late Unified Silla. Unfortunately of the four pagodas at the Seongjusa-ji Temple Site, the Central Three-Story Stone Pagoda at Seongjusa Temple Site is the most damaged.
The last of the three pagodas that are aligned is the West Three-Story Stone Pagoda at Seongjusa Temple Site, which is Korean Treasure #47. This western pagoda appears to be stylistically similar to the two other pagodas in the same area of the temple site grounds. It also appears to date back to late Unified Silla, and it is three stories in design. Again, the foundation to this pagoda consists of two stories. And again, the first story, which is larger than the other two stories, has a door relief with lock-shaped hooks that look like animals on the south side of the pagoda. Also, while the finial is largely missing to the West Three-Story Stone Pagoda at Seongjusa Temple Site, it does still have a squarish finial base. One other difference to this pagoda, at least compared to the other two neighbouring pagodas, is that this pagoda is wider. Finally, during the 1971 renovation work on this pagoda, a sari hole containing nothing was discovered. Obviously, it had been looted long ago by robbers.
And to the left rear of these three Korean Treasures is the Stele of Buddhist Monk Nanghye at Seongjusa Temple Site, which is housed underneath its own diminutive wooden pavilion. This historic stele is National Treasure #8. This stele is dedicated to the monk Muyeom (801-888 A.D.). The stele stands on the northwest corner of the temple site, and it has a tortoise-shaped pedestal and a body stone topped with a decorative capstone. Previously, the pedestal was damaged and largely lay buried underneath the ground for years until it was rediscovered and repaired in 1974. The tortoise-shaped base’s face is partially broken. The face of the tortoise-shaped base has a round horn on its head, while its eyebrows are nearly formed as one with the eyes. And the mouth appears to be spitting fire. As for the shell of the tortoise-shaped base, it has double hexagonal design with a thick cloud design at its centre. And at the centre of the tortoise shell is the holder for the body stone. As for the body stone, the inscription on it was written by Choe Chiwon (857–10th century). And the calligraphy on the body stone was written by his cousin, Choe Ingon. The writing on the body stone contains the life and achievements of Muyeom, and it also states how Muyeom belonged to the “jingol,” or “true bone” in English, which was a class of the royal family. The body stone goes on to explain how the family to which Muyeom belonged, while once belonging to the “true bone,” had declined in status to the point of now being a part of the “head rank six” class during Muyeom’s father’s generation. With all this in mind, the inscription on the body stone of the Stele of Buddhist Monk Nanghye at Seongjusa Temple Site is important because it provides insight into the class system during the Silla Dynasty (57 B.C. – 935 A.D.). As for the capstone, it’s decorated with lotus flower carvings, while a dragon relief is adorning the upper part of the capstone in the centre of clouds. Additionally, while the date of the stele’s construction isn’t recorded in the inscription, it can be inferred based upon the construction of Muyeom’s stupa, which was built in 890 A.D. some two years after the monk’s death.
And the final thing that visitors can explore to the right of the three aligned Korean Treasure pagodas and the Gangdang-ji Assembly Hall Site is the Standing Buddha Statue at Seongjusa Temple Site. While previously repaired with a goofy-looking clown face, the slightly broken former state of the statue has been returned. Oval in appearance, the features of the face are indistinguishable. As for its hands, they appear to be placed around its chest, and its robe is placed over both of its shoulders. It’s believed that this statue dates back to the transitional time found between the late Goryeo Dynasty (918-1392) and the early Joseon Dynasty (1392-1910). It’s believed to have been first erected by locals to help make their wishes come true. The Standing Buddha Statue at Seongjusa Temple Site is Chungcheongnam-do Cultural Material #373.How To Get There
There are two ways to get to the Seongjusa-ji Temple Site. From the Boryeong Bus Terminal, you can simply take a taxi. If you decide to take this option, it’ll take about 15 minutes over 8.8 km, and it’ll cost you about 11,600 won (one way).
However, if you’d rather take public transportation from the Boryeong Bus Terminal, you can catch Bus #900, Bus #100, Bus #101, or Bus #102. After 4 stops, or 8 minutes, you’ll need to get off at the “Medical Center Stop.” From this stop, you’ll need to catch another bus. You can take either Bus #806-1 or Bus 807-1. After 12 stops, you’ll need to get off at the “Seongjusa-ji Stop.” From this stop, you’ll need to walk about 2 minutes to get to the Seongjusa-ji Temple Site.Overall Rating: 7/10
The Seongjusa-ji Temple Site is one of the most beautiful and most intact temple sites in all of Korea with numerous Korean Treasures and even a National Treasure. The four Korean Treasure pagodas are stunning, while the National Treasure stele dedicated to Muyeom, especially its gargoyle-like face of the tortoise-shaped base, is extraordinary, as well. And while the Seongjusa-ji Temple Site appears to be situated in the middle of nowhere, it’s well worth your effort and time to visit one of Korea’s finest temple sites.The temple site grounds as you first approach it. The Stone Lantern of Seongjusa-ji and the Five-Story Stone Pagoda at Seongjusa Temple Site. The replica of the stone steps leading up to the Geumdang-ji Main Hall Site. Atop the Geumdang-ji Main Hall Site. The East Three-Story Stone Pagoda of Seongjusa Temple Site, which is Korean Treasure #2021. The Central Three-Story Stone Pagoda at Seongjusa Temple Site, which is Korean Treasure #20. And the West Three-Story Stone Pagoda at Seongjusa Temple Site, which is Korean Treasure #47. The Stele of Buddhist Monk Nanghye at Seongjusa Temple Site, which is National Treasure #8. The face of the tortoise-based pedestal to the Stele of Buddhist Monk Nanghye at Seongjusa Temple Site. The Stele of Buddhist Monk Nanghye at Seongjusa Temple Site body stone. And the capstone to the Stele of Buddhist Monk Nanghye at Seongjusa Temple Site. The view from the Gangdang-ji Assembly Hall Site towards the Standing Buddha Statue at Seongjusa Temple Site. The recently restored Standing Buddha Statue at Seongjusa Temple Site. The Standing Buddha Statue at Seongjusa Temple Sit looking out onto the four Korean Treasure Pagodas.—
Dale's Korean Temple Adventures YouTube
~단다/~란다 "It Is Said" | Live Class Abridged
Most Sundays I have a live stream where we learn about a new Korean topic, and this recent Sunday's class was all about the forms ~단다/~란다 and ~답니다/~랍니다. These forms are abbreviated quoting forms (much like ~대요 and ~래요), but also have an extra common usage.
The full live stream was an hour and a half, but this abridged version is just under 9 minutes total.
The post ~단다/~란다 "It Is Said" | Live Class Abridged appeared first on Learn Korean with GO! Billy Korean.—
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