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Mukbang – Popular eating broadcast videos from South Korea

Fri, 2022-11-04 10:02

If you’ve read our article on Youtube in Korean, you might’ve seen the word “mukbang” mentioned before. However, you may still be confused or curious about what exactly mukbang is. Not to mention, you may wonder how it started in the first place and what makes it so popular.

Perhaps you’ve seen some clips or stills of mukbang videos, and have been shocked by the amount of food presented. It may leave you wondering: how do they do it?!

In this article, we will explore the ins and outs of mukbang, perhaps the hottest food trend on YouTube, for the past couple of years. What exactly makes something a mukbang video? How was it discovered, and how did it soar into the popularity of gaining millions of views per video?

Why are people so interested in investing up to an hour of their time in a YouTube video? And, best of all, can you utilize mukbang videos to learn Korean?

What is mukbang?

Mukbang means a video where the audience watch the host eat, typically live streaming. And it’s not just any video of the video streamer eating, it’s them eating mountains of food. Basically, a whole day’s meals eaten in one sitting, except it’s just one big meal that they’re eating.

Mukbangs have been a popular live stream to watch for around a decade already. In that time, various shapes of mukbang streams have become available for people to watch.

What can viewers expect in a mukbang video?

Besides the eating part, people may also get to see the host first preparing the food. It’s also common in a mukbang content for the streamer to order the food as takeout or have it delivered. However, the emphasis of the video is always on the host eating the food. This is what sets it apart from traditional cooking shows, for example.

ASMR Mukbang

Some streamers will do what is known as ASMR mukbang. As you may already know, ASMR stands for “autonomous sensory meridian response.”

In the case of mukbangs, this means the streamer focuses on the sounds made while eating, such as slurping, chewing, and possibly even the sounds that come from opening food packages. These can facilitate an atmosphere where the audience can somewhat “feel” the food being eaten by the streamer.

Storytime Mukbang

Alternatively, you can find many streamers that do storytime mukbangs. In these videos, the streamer will tell a story, talk about gossip, or something similar and unrelated to food, as they eat. These can also be highly engaging and fun for people to watch.

Additionally, sometimes the streamers may also do a mukbang as an interview or as a collaboration, in which case there will be a guest or guests appearing on the video as well.

Mukbang streamers

Mukbang streamers are also called mukbang BJs. It may sound weird to English speakers, but Korean BJs actually refer to broadcast jockeys. Think disco jockeys and video jockeys as inspirations for this term.

In English, you may instead refer to them as online streamers or live streamers. Therefore, the term mukbang BJ can also be switched up into a mukbang streamer.

What does mukbang mean?

The Korean term for mukbang is 먹방 (meokbang). This is a combination of two words: the phrase “let’s eat”, which in Korean is 먹자 (meokja), and the Korean word for broadcast, which is 방송 (bangsong).

In other words 먹자 (meokja) + 방송 (bang song) = 먹방 (meokbang). In English, it could be translated as “eating broadcast.” Perhaps even more appropriately, you would refer to mukbang as “eatcast” in English.

Where did mukbang come from?

The mukbang trend started in South Korea. It can be said that mukbang videos started becoming a thing to create and watch back in 2010 or so. It quickly gained attention from the viewers. Over the years, more and more people create content and were posting videos and popped into the screen.

Many of these mukbang videos were originally streamed live on the AfreecaTV platform. In Afreeca TV, viewers could interact with the host by commenting in a real-time chat. Since then, YouTube and other similar video platforms have also been popular for streamers to use to host their videos.

What makes mukbang unique?

One of the big drawing points of mukbang was that, although it promotes dining as a social activity, it is also vastly different from traditional food etiquette and societal norms, as well as gender norms, in South Korea.

Simultaneously, one of the big societal changes the mukbang trend was able to get a hold of was the increasing amount of single Koreans and Koreans living alone, who then turned to mukbang for dining company.

However, it may not have anything to do with the loneliness of eating alone, but more so with it bringing enjoyment to watch someone eat, as well as to share food with someone, even if, in mukbang’s case, it happens virtually.

Mukbang in the U.S.

In the United States, the start of mukbang can be seen to have happened around 2015. This is when, on the YouTube channel REACT, a video of YouTubers reacting to mukbang videos was released. It was an instant hit and has continued to be such, having reached nearly 7 million views by today.

Thanks to the video, viewers immediately headed over to Google to search for the meaning of “mukbang.” Regardless of how the searchers reacted to the videos themselves – it could’ve been amazement, and it could’ve been horror – a trend was created.

The first American attempt at a mukbang video soon followed. However, since the start, American Youtubers have taken a vastly different approach to their videos, as they tend to talk way more in comparison to a Korean mukbang BJ, where the focus is much more on the actual eating experience.

The trend has even brought about “mukbang challenges” all around the world. These trends combine the mukbang aspect of eating lots of food with a time limit similar to what you can find in food contests. Much of the time, the food being eaten are packs of ramyeon noodles.

Why is mukbang popular?

Perhaps the most interesting question here is why mukbang has gained the amount of popularity it has. Many might wonder whether watching others is truly that much fun, especially as it’s not exactly a new form of entertainment, either.

Well, from a Western point of view, it may seem so, especially if you’re accustomed to watching all sorts of reality shows related to food. However, for Koreans and their food culture, it’s quite a different perspective they come from.

Mukbang as a means of social eating

In South Korea, eating is often a social event, whether they are having a homecooked meal or eating out. Thus, the popularity of mukbang can at least partially be explained by it being a recreation of socializing around food, so to speak.

In fact, many mukbang streamers go live right during the most common meal times in South Korea. This makes it easier for Koreans not only to view but also to eat as they are watching the mukbang stream. Especially this seems to bring in those viewers who live alone and may not otherwise have any companion as they dine.

Of course, mukbang streamers in other countries may operate largely differently from how the original Korean mukbang streamers do. Mukbang streamers from countries like the USA may instead record their videos ahead of time and also spend more time talking about various topics as they eat.

Even then, many viewers from around the world may enjoy watching these videos while eating, feeling like they are having company and conversation with the mukbang streamer.

Binge eating and food cravings

Besides it being seen as a social event to some, perhaps an even bigger reason why mukbangs have drawn so much attention their way is the large quantities of food consumed by the streamers during any given video. This may be seen as having poor eating habits by some, but most viewers find it entertaining.

In just one sitting, they’ll eat more than a day’s calorie intake. It may even reach such ridiculous levels as 10,000 to even 20,000 calories consumed! It’s unlikely for the average person to consume meals of such great volume, so it becomes entertaining to watch someone else do so instead, and live vigorously through that, so to speak.

In other words, it could, in a way, satisfy some food cravings people may have. In this manner, it may especially appeal to those on a diet and feeling unable to actually consume these high-calorie foods themselves.

The ASMR aspect of a mukbang video

And, of course, its ASMR qualities are proven to offer enjoyable sensations to the viewers. It is not uncommon for mukbang streamers to exaggerate the sounds they make while eating the food for the sake of the ASMR.

It is obviously not everyone’s cup of tea, as many may also receive negative sensory reactions from the noises. But for many people, ASMR is also found to increase feelings of relaxation and enjoyment. Many viewers watch simply because they are curious to discover why this trend is so insanely popular.

How to learn Korean with Mukbang?

Besides being fun entertainment, mukbang is yet another tool that can be utilized to learn Korean.

Learn new Korean slang

It may not give you tons of traditional vocabulary or grammar patterns to work with, but the young mukbang hosts are typically not shy about using the latest and trendiest slang in their streams. Thus, it is an excellent opportunity to prep yourself with some Korean slang that you can try out when talking with your Korean friends.

Learn food-related Korean words

In addition to current slang trends, you’ll be able to master all sorts of food-related vocabulary by watching mukbang videos. Utilizing fun and unique tools like mukbang live streams for learning Korean can actually enhance your ability to memorize the vocabulary, more than a traditional course book could.

Similarly, K-dramas and movies can also be helpful. However, the vocabulary presented on mukbang videos is far more concentrated on a specific type of vocabulary. In other words, it will be a less overwhelming learning channel than watching a drama or a movie.

If you are completely new to Korean language, you may want to start with our Korean Lessons Inner Circle program first. Once you have gained some knowledge from that, you may be able to find watching mukbang streamers helpful in your language learning journey.

Tips on watching mukbang videos for learning Korean

When watching mukbang videos, try to watch them without any help or subtitles first. This way, you will get a first touch with what is being spoken in the video, completely uninterrupted. When you watch the video again, you can turn on the subtitles.

Note that the subtitles are likely to be in Korean. Once you have the subtitles on, it will be easier for you to pinpoint and jot down the vocabulary you’ve just heard. And then you can search their English meaning on sites like Naver Dictionary.

Perhaps you can even try to repeat the words after the mukbang streamer? Yes, all of this may require a little bit of extra work on your part, but it will only make it easier for you to memorize it all!

Words related to mukbang

Here are some Korean words that can get you started on learning with mukbang videos!

EnglishKorean Camera 카메라 (kamera) Delicious 맛있다 (masitda) Food, groceries 식품 (sikpum) Kimchi 김치 (gimchi) Meal 식사 (siksa) Meat 고기 (gogi) Microphone 마이크 (maikeu) Noodles 국수 (guksu) Pork 돼지고기 (dwaejigogi) Seafood 해물 (haemul) Side dish 반찬 (banchan) Vegetables 야채 (yachae) YouTuber 유튜버 (yutyubeo) Phrases related to mukbang

Next are some easy phrases related to eating. You’ll often hear these phrases being said by Korean mukbangers.

배고파. (baegopa)

I’m hungry.

잘 먹겠습니다! (jal meokgetseumnida)

Bon appetit!/I will eat well!

음식이 맛있어요. (eumsiki masisseoyo.)

This food is delicious.

나는 전체 해요. (naneun jeonche haeyo.)

I’m full.

잘 먹었습니다! (jal meogeotseumnida)

I ate well!/Thank you for this meal!

Mukbang YouTube channels

Here are some popular YouTube channels from where you may find mukbang videos to your liking.

Banzz (밴쯔)

This channel’s host is one of the first mukbang streamers out there, currently with a little over 2 million subscribers on YouTube. His videos are diverse in both length and foods eaten.

His older videos also offer English subtitles, while the more current ones come with Korean ones, making for a great opportunity to learn some vocabulary while being entertained.

[Dorothy]도로시

With more than 4 million YouTube subscribers, Dorothy offers short mukbang videos with her eating various different dishes. Many of her videos have English subtitles available, and besides learning vocabulary, her videos can be a great introduction to many different Korean dishes as well. She is also incredibly engaging to watch, not to mention the awe she’ll put you in with her masterful ability to handle spicy foods.

KEEMI

This channel, slightly smaller than the others mentioned on the list, is one that focuses quite specifically on the noises made while eating food, with less chatter offered while eating. This might also be the channel that will evoke your own hunger buds the most, so you might want to be equipped with a snack or meal of some sort while watching it.

Nikocado Avocado

With over 3 million subscribers, Nikocado Avocado is perhaps the most popular American mukbanger so far. In comparison to others on this list, his videos tend to run a little bit longer, and he seems to especially love eating noodles in his videos.

Nikocado Avocado also often has other people joining him on the eating challenges. Besides eating copious amounts of food, his personality seems to be another big draw for the people that flock to his channel.

Stephanie Soo

Besides traditional mukbang videos, on this USA-based channel with a following of nearly 3 million, you can also find food reviews and cooking videos. Much of her content also includes interesting stories and other topics.

Although she cannot offer you a chance to learn Korean through her videos, she can be an incredibly fun channel to follow in your free time!

Yuka Kinoshita 木下ゆうか

Yuka Kinoshita is a massively popular Japanese mukbang streamer, with over 5 million subscribers on her Youtube channel. She has short videos that are more ASMR-based, and also slightly longer ones where she may gulf down a meal anywhere from 5,000 to approximately 12,000 calories! Besides being entertaining and awe-inducing to watch, her channel is a lovely gateway into modern Japanese cuisine.

Wrap Up

Have you watched a mukbang video before, or do you also make your own mukbang videos? Do you think mukbang is something you enjoy or will enjoy watching? And are you a fan of ASMR? Let us know below in the comments!

Now that we’ve gotten started how about learning even more vocabulary for food in Korean?

The post Mukbang – Popular eating broadcast videos from South Korea appeared first on 90 Day Korean®.

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Categories: Worldbridges Megafeed

30 Easy One-on-one ESL Activities

Fri, 2022-11-04 04:55

Here are 30 activities that you can use in one-on-one classes, but could be used with groups too.

YouTube Channel: Etacude

ERIC O. WESCH

Teacher/YouTuber

[email protected]

      

Categories: Worldbridges Megafeed

Yeongoksa Temple – 연곡사 (Gurye, Jeollanam-do)

Thu, 2022-11-03 23:26
The Cheonwangmun Gate at Yeongoksa Temple in Gurye, Jeollanam-do Temple History

Yeongoksa Temple is located in Gurye, Jeollanam-do, and it was purportedly first constructed in 543 A.D. by the the Indian monk Yeongi-josa, who also founded neighbouring Hwaeomsa Temple in 544 A.D. According to legend, Yeongi-josa discovered a pond while reading about the land. While he was looking out at the middle of the pond, a swallow flew out from a whirlpool of water. After that, the pond dried up and the place where the pond used to inhabit was used for the temple grounds. As a result, Yeongoksa Temple means “Swallow Valley Temple” in English.

The temple was later renovated in the 9th century by Doseon-guksa. During the 900’s, Yeongoksa Temple was a renowned site for meditation up until the 16th century. Yeongoksa Temple was later destroyed by fire and looted during the Imjin War (1592-1598) in 1598. It was rebuilt in 1627 by the monk Soyo after this devastating war that ravaged much of the Korean peninsula. Three centuries later, Yeongoksa Temple was destroyed once more by Japanese soldiers fighting the Korean Resistance in 1907. More specifically, and after Go Gwangsun established a base at Yeongoksa Temple for his militia forces to fight the colonizing Japanese after the signing of the Japan-Korea Treaty of 1905, on August 26th, 1907, Yeongoksa Temple was destroyed and Go Gwangsun lost his life during a nighttime raid by the Japanese.

Once more, Yeongoksa Temple was rebuilt in 1924 only to be destroyed during the Korean War (1950-1953) in 1950; this time, by South Korean soldiers fighting communist sympathizers. A decade later, a small Daeung-jeon Hall was built on the temple grounds, as well as a Yosachae (monks’ dorms). Then on March 1st, 1981, a new Daejeokgwang-jeon Hall was built with a budget of 130 million won. In 1983, the Gwaneum-jeon Hall was built, and the Yosachae was expanded in 1994. More recently, the Iljumun Gate was built in 1995 and followed by the construction of the Jong-gak Pavilion in 1996.

In total, Yeongoksa Temple is home to an impressive two National Treasures and four additional Korean Treasures. The two National Treasures are the East Stupa of Yeongoksa Temple (NT #53) and the North Stupa of Yeongoksa Temple (NT #54). As for the four Korean Treasures, they include the Three-Story Stone Pagoda of Yeongoksa Temple (T #151), the Stele for Master Hyeongak at Yeongoksa Temple (T #152), the East Stele of Yeongoksa Temple (T #153), and the Stupa of Buddhist Monk Soyo at Yeongoksa Temple (T #154).

The East Stupa of Yeongoksa Temple from 1936. (Picture courtesy of the National Museum of Korea). Temple Layout

You first approach Yeongoksa Temple past the top-heavy Iljumun Gate that has two twisted wooden pillars that support the weight of the first entry gate. Next, you’ll find the newly built Cheonwangmun Gate. The exterior walls to the second entry gate are beautifully adorned with vibrant and realistic murals dedicated to the Four Heavenly Kings on the four front and back panels. And the two wide side panels are adorned with equally vibrant murals dedicated to Munsu-bosal (The Bodhisattva of Wisdom) and Bohyeon-bosal (The Bodhisattva of Power), almost symbolically making it a Geumgangmun Gate in the process. Stepping inside the Cheonwangmun Gate, you’ll find four large statues dedicated to the Four Heavenly Kings. And making these large statues even more imposing is that they intimidatingly lean forward from the back walls of the entry gates interior.

Before entering the main temple courtyard at Yeongoksa Temple, you’ll pass under the Samhong-ru Pavilion. Up the stairs, you’ll find the beautiful Daejeokgwang-jeon Hall straight ahead of you. Before climbing the stairs that lead up to the main hall that are book-ended by a pair of seokdeung (stone lanterns), you’ll find the Jong-gak Pavilion to your left rear. Housed inside this bell pavilion is a large Brahma Bell sheltered underneath a large roof and framed by the rolling mountains of Mt. Jirisan.

The exterior walls of the Daejeokgwang-jeon Hall are adorned with large Shimu-do (Ox-Herding Murals). And the front latticework is supported by an assortment of butterfly hinges. Stepping inside the Daejeokgwang-jeon Hall, you’ll find a triad of statues resting on the main altar. In the centre of the three is an image of Birojana-bul (The Buddha of Cosmic Energy). This central image is joined on either side by statues dedicated to Seokgamoni-bul (The Historical Buddha) and Nosana-bul (The Perfect Body Buddha).

To the left of the Daejeokgwang-jeon Hall is the Gwaneum-jeon Hall at Yeongoksa Temple. The exterior walls of the Gwaneum-jeon Hall are adorned with a collection of murals dedicated to the various incarnations of Gwanseeum-bosal (The Bodhisattva of Compassion). And they are some of the finest in Korea. Stepping inside the Gwaneum-jeon Hall, you’ll find a solitary image of Gwanseeum-bosal on the main altar. And the Bodhisattva of Compassion is joined by rows of tiny figurines dedicated to Gwanseeum-bosal. And the ceiling and beams of the interior of the Gwaneum-jeon Hall are adorned with stunning murals of dragons, Bicheon (Flying Heavenly Deities), and phoenixes.

To the right of the Daejeokgwang-jeon Hall, on the other hand, is the Myeongbu-jeon Hall. The exterior walls to the Myeongbu-jeon Hall are plainly adorned in simplistic dancheong. And the interior is occupied by a newer collection of Siwang (The Ten Kings of the Underworld) and a central image of Jijang-bosal (The Bodhisattva of the Afterlife) on the main altar.

Slightly up the hillside, and to the right of the stone entranceway that leads up to all the Korean Treasures and National Treasures at Yeongoksa Temple, is the Samseong-gak Hall. The three shaman murals housed inside the Samseong-gak Hall are modern and beautiful. The first of the three as you enter, and to the far left, is dedicated to Dokseong (The Lonely Saint). In the centre hangs a mural dedicated to Chilseong (The Seven Stars). What’s interesting about this painting, and according to Prof. David Mason, is that Okhwang-sangje (the Jade Emperor of Heaven), who is the supreme Taoist deity, is front and centre in a double-star crown almost like alien antennas. Backing this front and centre image of Okhwang-sangje are seven earthly officials that almost appear to look like an incarnation of Sanshin (The Mountain Spirit). And the final painting in the set of three, and to the far right, is the mural dedicated to Sanshin. This modern painting features two tigers and a seated image of the Mountain Spirit holding a golden fan. To the right of Sanshin is a girl dongja (attendant) holding a golden bottle that is presumably medicinal wine. And the male dongja to the far right carries a gourd also probably filled with wine.

To the rear, and between the Daejeokgwang-jeon Hall and the Myeongbu-jeon Hall, you’ll find a stone archway entrance that leads up to the stone treasures. The first of the two National Treasures is the East Stupa of Yeongoksa Temple, which is just a little jaunt up the hillside. The stupa dates back to Unified Silla (668-935 A.D.), and this stupa was built to enshrine the sari of a prominent monk. The stupa consists of three parts: a base, a body, and a roof stone. And of the three historic stupas housed at Yeongoksa Temple, the East Stupa of Yeongoksa Temple is the most beautiful and best preserved. The base of the stupa is comprised of three parts: the lower, the middle, and the upper parts of the base. The lower part is double-tiered and there are lions surrounded by clouds carved onto the base. The middle part of the base consists of the eight deva guardians found in Korean Buddhism. And the upper part of the base is a double-tiered structure carved with lotus petals, pillars, and Gareungbinga (Kalavinka). The main body of the stupa has borders carved on each of its faces, and the images carved onto these body faces are incense burners and the Four Heavenly Kings. The roof stone, on the other hand, is elaborately carved with rafters and tiles including roof-end tiles. And the finial of the capstone has decorative phoenixes with open wings and a lotus blossom. While there is no clear evidence has to who this stupa belongs to, it has been argued by some that the stupa in fact belongs to Doseon-guksa. And during Japanese Colonial Rule (1910-1945), there were attempts made by the Tokyo Imperial University to have the stupa moved to Japan. After studying the stupa for several months, the Japanese attempted to move it; however, because of the mountainous terrain, and the pathway leading down towards the temple being treacherous, it was impossible to smuggle the historic stupa off to Japan.

The East Stupa of Yeongoksa Temple is joined by the East Stele of Yeongoksa Temple. Typically a stele consists of a pedestal, a body stone, and a capstone; however, the East Stele of Yeongoksa Temple is missing its body stone. With that being said, both the pedestal and the capstone have wonderful designs. The pedestal is shaped like a dragon lying with its four legs outstretched and clawing forward in the ground. Rather uniquely, this dragon-faced tortoise stele is adorned with wings upon its shell. The capstone, on the other hand, is adorned with cloud designs and a flaming lotus bud atop the stone structure. This stele was erected during the Goryeo Dynasty (918-1392); and like the neighbouring stupa, this stele, also, could be dedicated to Dokseon-guksa. However, without the body stone to the stele, it’s uncertain.

The North Stupa of Yeongoksa Temple from 1936. (Picture courtesy of the National Museum of Korea).

Further up the mountainside trail, and definitely a more strenuous hike than the one that led you up to the east stupa and stele, you’ll find the other National Treasure at Yeongoksa Temple: the North Stupa of Yeongoksa Temple. The north stupa is a near replica of the east stupa. It’s almost the same size and form; however, the decorative details on the north stupa are slightly different than the neighbouring east stupa. Again, the North Stupa of Yeongoksa Temple consists of a base, a body, and a capstone. The north stupa also consists of three parts: the lower, middle, and upper base. The first level of the base is double-tiered with the lower tier carved with clouds and the upper tier adorned with a lotus flower that has 26 petals. The middle part of the base is also double-tiered and is carved with railings and lotus blossoms. The upper part of the base, on the other hand, is adorned with a Gareungbinga (Kalavinka). Like the east stupa, the north stupa is adorned with the Four Heavenly Kings and incense burners around its body. The roof stone is carved with rafters and tiles, while the finial is adorned with four phoenixes and a lotus blossom. Unfortunately, it’s unknown as to whom this stupa was erected for.

Continuing down the trail, now heading down the slopes of the mountain, and completing the semi-circular trail, you’ll come to a walled-off area with a collection of stupas. Housed inside this area is the Stupa of Buddhist Monk Soyo at Yeongoksa Temple, which is the second Korean Treasure at the temple. This stupa is joined by a row of more contemporary stupas. Slightly elevated, the Stupa of Buddhist Monk Soyo at Yeongoksa Temple is located in the western part of the temple grounds. The stupa was first erected in 1650. The stupa consists of a main body that houses the sari of Soyo, a base, and a finial. All three sections are octagonal in design. The base of the stupa is divided into three tiers; of which, each is engraved with a lotus flower pattern. Above this lower base stone is a much thicker supporting stone, which is unusual. Only one of the eight faces of the body is adorned. The adornment is a Korean-style door. The other body stone surfaces are carved with reliefs of the eight deva guardians. A large flower adorns each corner of the roof stone, and the finial; especially for its age, it’s quite well preserved.

Down a stone flight of stairs and past the modern memorial for Go Gwangsun, you’ll find the Stele for Master Hyeongak at Yeongoksa Temple, which is the third Korean Treasure at Yeongoksa Temple. The stele dates back to the early Goryeo Dynasty, and it was already missing its body stone by the time of the Imjin War (1592-1598) in 1592. Now all that remains of the stele are its pedestal and capstone. Rather dramatically, the tortoise pedestal has a large dragon’s head with long whiskers. It also has large eyes and a broad mouth. The body stone support is carved with a panel adorned with a flower design. And the capstone of the stele is carved with several intertwined dragons that are rendered vividly. The inscription on the middle of the front surface of the stele’s capstone states that the stele was first erected in 979 A.D.

And the final Korean Treasure at Yeongoksa Temple is situated in a lower area of the temple in front of the Stele for Master Hyeongak at Yeongoksa Temple. The Three-Story Stone Pagoda of Yeongoksa Temple is rather typical of the plain Silla design. The pagoda consists of three stories. The corners to each of the body stones is engraved with a pillar design. Because the base is so large, the body stones seem somewhat small in comparison. It’s presumed, based on the pagoda’s design, that it was constructed during late Unified Silla (668-935 A.D.). And in 1967, during the restoration of the pagoda to repair the third story of the structure, the upper layer of the base rendered a standing bronze Buddha.

How To Get There

From the Gurye Bus Terminal, you’ll need to take Bus #8-1 to get to Yeongoksa Temple. This bus will head towards Piagol Valley. You’ll need to take this bus for nearly one hour, or 21 stops. You’ll need to get off at the Pyeongdo bus stop – 평도하차.” From where the bus drops you off, you’ll need to head north for nearly a kilometre, or 17 minutes.

Overall Rating: 7.5/10

It’s rare to find so many Korean Treasures and National Treasures in just one location. And the lesser known Yeongoksa Temple is home to six. The most impressive of the collection are the East Stupa of Yeongoksa Temple, the East Stele of Yeongoksa Temple, and the Stele for Master Hyeongak at Yeongoksa Temple. However, all six stone structures are impressive. In addition to these six historic stone monuments, the vibrant Cheonwangmun Gate, the exterior murals to the Gwaneum-jeon Hall, and the atypical shaman murals inside the Samseong-gak Hall are all worthy of your time. So while in Jirisan National Park, take the time to explore one of its lesser known treasures.

A look through the Iljumun Gate towards the Cheonwangmun Gate. A look inside the Cheonwangmun Gate at two of the Four Heavenly Kings. A look towards the Samhong-ru Pavilion. The Jong-gak Pavilion at Yeongoksa Temple. The Daejeokgwang-jeon Hall. The view from the main hall. One of the stunning murals that adorns the Gwaneum-jeon Hall. A look inside the Gwaneum-jeon Hall. The beautiful beams and ceiling dancheong inside the Gwaneum-jeon Hall. A look inside the Myeongbu-jeon Hall. The unique Chilseong (The Seven Stars) mural inside the Samseong-gak Hall. Which is joined by this double tiger mural dedicated to Sanshin (The Mountain Spirit). National Treasure #53: the East Stupa of Yeongoksa Temple. The East Stele of Yeongoksa Temple, which is Korean Treasure #153. The North Stupa of Yeongoksa Temple, which is National Treasure #54. The Stupa of Buddhist Monk Soyo at Yeongoksa Temple, which is Korean Treasure #154. The Stele for Master Hyeongak at Yeongoksa Temple, which is Korean Treasure #152. And the final Korean Treasure at Yeongoksa Temple, the Three-Story Stone Pagoda of Yeongoksa Temple (T #151). —

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Templestay – International Seon Center (Seoul)

Thu, 2022-11-03 04:27
The Templestay at the International Seon Center in Seoul. (Picture courtesy of the Templestay Website). Introduction to Temple

The International Seon Center first opened its doors on November 15th, 2010. The center was opened so that both Koreans and ex-pats could enjoy and experience Korean Buddhism. In total, the center consists of nine floors. The first two underground floors are reserved for parking, while the final underground floor is reserved for the Education and Culture Hall. The first floor of the building houses the center’s office and restaurant. The third and fourth floor, respectively, house the Event Hall and the Dining Room. The fifth floor, and the floor you’re probably most interested in, is reserved for the Templestay program; while the sixth and seventh floor consist of the monks’ living quarters and the Geumcha Seon Hall (or the Practice Hall).

In total, the International Seon Centre only conducts one Templestay program at their facilities. This is the Saturday Meditation & Dharma Class. This program is conducted on Saturdays, during the evenings, and it focuses on meditation.

Directions

To get to the International Seon Center, you’ll first need to take the Seoul subway, line #5, and get off at the Omokgyo station. You’ll then need to go out exit #8. From here, you’ll need to walk straight until you come to the first intersection. Turn left at the intersection and walk straight, once more, until you come to the Mokdong Middle School on your left. From here, you should be able to see the seven-story International Seon Center opposite the middle school.

Templestay Program

The International Seon Center in Seoul only conducts one Templestay program for foreign nationals. It is a three hour program known as the Saturday Meditation & Dharma Class. Here is their schedule:

TimeTitle18:30-19:00Orientation time19:00-20:30Sitting meditation/Walking meditation/Sitting meditation20:30-21:30Dhamma talk The facilities at the International Seon Center. (Picture courtesy of the Templestay Website). Temple Information

Address: 167 Mokdongdong-ro, Yangcheon-gu, Seoul, South Korea, 08013

Tel: +82-2-2650-2242

E-mail: [email protected]

Fees

The program is free and costs nothing to the visitor of any age.

Links

Reservations for the Saturday Meditation & Dharma Class

Enjoying the Templestay at the International Seon Center in Seoul. (Picture courtesy of the Templestay Website). —

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How will NATO Respond in the Unlikely Event Russia Uses a Nuke in Ukraine? We will Not Counter-Nuke; We have Many Other Options

Wed, 2022-11-02 08:15

Russian nuclear use in Ukraine is extremely unlikely, and NATO would not hit back with a nuke even if they did.

I am fairly exhausted with the lurid alarmism that we are tumbling toward world war 3 or some kind of nuclear exchange with Russia. I have argue against this here, here, and here.

This claim mostly gets brought up my pro-Putin voices in the West whose real interest is a Russian victory in the war. They therefore stoke exaggerated fears of nuclear war to push NATO to stop aiding Ukraine. The bad faith – the manipulation of nuclear anxieties to pursue unrelated ideological goals – is transparent.

Mostly this comes from MAGA rightists, for whom Russia and Hungary are models of ‘post-liberal’ governance, plus some ‘anti-imperial’ leftists for whom US action is ipso facto bad. Both are trying to scare NATO into cutting off aid to Ukraine by threat-inflating a nuclear exchange. In fact, that event is VERY unlikely.

Further, even if Russia did use a nuke in Ukraine, there is no obvious reason for NATO to hit back in-kind. There is only a ‘slide’ toward escalation if both sides do it, and the US won’t counter-nuke, because 1) it does not want to slide toward a wider nuclear exchange, and 2) it has lots of other economic and conventional options to respond.

I cover those options in this essay for 1945.com:

Throughout his war in Ukraine, Russian President Vladimir Putin has obliquely hinted that he might use nuclear weapons. I have argued in these pages that this is unlikely. There is no obvious Ukrainian military or infrastructural target of a size commensurate with a nuclear weapon’s power. Russia would be badly isolated by the rest of the world if it took this step, so any target would need to be worth the huge geopolitical blowback. Ukraine does not appear to have one. Its army is spread out across a thousand-mile front. None of its important infrastructure is so massive that it needs a nuke to disable. Much of the nuke-talk in the West is overwrought.

Nevertheless, it is wise to consider how NATO and the wider world of democracies will and should respond if Putin nonetheless takes this step. If Putin is losing badly in Ukraine and his rule at home is threatened by widespread unrest over the course of the war– a somewhat credible scenario for next year – perhaps he will take this gamble to turn things around. So what will the West do?

We Won’t Counter-Nuke Russia

So long as a Russia nuclear strike was limited to Ukraine, NATO would almost certainly not respond in kind. To do so would risk a further Russian nuclear response and a spiral of nuclear exchanges. The Ukrainians might be so shocked and horrified by the extraordinary damage, that they would demand this. But the West will almost reject that request, just as it rejected Ukrainian demands for a no-fly zone back in March.

But the West also need not escalate like that. NATO is conventionally superior to Russia, and that lead has widened considerably because of Russian losses in Ukraine. If Russia cannot defeat Ukraine, then it is very vulnerable to NATO conventional retaliation. The West will almost certainly start there, if only to prevent nuclear escalation.

Read the rest here.

Robert E Kelly
Assistant Professor
Department of Political Science & Diplomacy
Pusan National University

@Robert_E_Kelly

 

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TOPIK Reading Part--│Solving reading questions│Cheon Seong Ok Teacher--‍--

Wed, 2022-11-02 02:33

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Korean classes in November!

Tue, 2022-11-01 03:11
Classified Ad Type: Location: Neighborhood: pnu haeundae seomyon ksu bsu jangsanContact person by email

Busan's Korean Language Institute For Foreigners (KLIFF) is offering classes for everyone.  Make a change by learning Korean this season.  The teachers at KLIFF can help!

Think it takes a year to speak Korean well?  Think again!  In just a  month we can get you speaking with the locals! 

KLIFF is located in two convenient locations: PNU and Haeundae. 

We have as many as 9 levels of Korean ability for you to choose from.  We also offer special lectures targeted toward the Korean proficiency test.

We're open from 9 a.m. to 10 p.m. Monday through Saturday, and available Sunday, too!

Questions or need directions?  Feel free to call us any time at 010-9108-6594, or email to [email protected].  You can also check us out at www.kliff.co.kr
See the map below to our PNU location, call or see our website for Haeundae classes.

IMG_4553.JPG

Busan's Korean Language Institute For Foreigners (KLIFF) is offering classes for everyone.  Make a change by learning Korean this season.  The teachers at KLIFF can help!

Think it takes a year to speak Korean well?  Think again!  In just a  month we can get you speaking with the locals! 

KLIFF is located in two convenient locations: PNU and Haeundae. 

We have as many as 9 levels of Korean ability for you to choose from.  We also offer special lectures targeted toward the Korean proficiency test.

We're open from 9 a.m. to 10 p.m. Monday through Saturday, and available Sunday, too!

Questions or need directions?  Feel free to call us any time at 010-9108-6594, or email to [email protected].  You can also check us out at www.kliff.co.kr
See the map below to our PNU location, call or see our website for Haeundae classes.

Categories: Worldbridges Megafeed

Korean classes in November!

Tue, 2022-11-01 03:11
Classified Ad Type: Location: Neighborhood: pnu haeundae seomyon ksu bsu jangsanContact person by email

Busan's Korean Language Institute For Foreigners (KLIFF) is offering classes for everyone.  Make a change by learning Korean this season.  The teachers at KLIFF can help!

Think it takes a year to speak Korean well?  Think again!  In just a  month we can get you speaking with the locals! 

KLIFF is located in two convenient locations: PNU and Haeundae. 

We have as many as 9 levels of Korean ability for you to choose from.  We also offer special lectures targeted toward the Korean proficiency test.

We're open from 9 a.m. to 10 p.m. Monday through Saturday, and available Sunday, too!

Questions or need directions?  Feel free to call us any time at 010-9108-6594, or email to [email protected].  You can also check us out at www.kliff.co.kr
See the map below to our PNU location, call or see our website for Haeundae classes.

IMG_4553.JPG
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Korean prepositions – Describing an object’s position

Tue, 2022-11-01 02:15

Today is a great day to learn Korean through a lesson on Korean prepositions! This is another important piece of Korean grammar and vocabulary.

They can be quite easy to learn, but they may function a little differently than prepositions in your own language might. With them, you can make your sentences look more natural and complete. After all, prepositions and postpositions are likely to be an integral part of your native language’s grammar and sentence structure as well!

Let’s get to learning this bit of essential Korean grammar!

How to say “preposition” in Korean

The Korean word for “preposition” is 조사 (josa). This is another word to add to your Korean vocabulary. Let’s learn more about how to use it below.

What is a Korean preposition?

Korean prepositions are the same as in other languages: on, in, under… However, in the Korean language, they are technically not seen as their own group of words, they are simply nouns.

And in fact, you need to combine them together with particles when forming sentences using these prepositions. Most commonly, you may see them attached to -에 (-e), -에서 (-eseo), or -으로 (-euro) type of particle.

Korean postposition

To be precise, a Korean preposition acts more like a postposition when compared with the English language. For example, in English, you would say “on the table,” with the preposition coming before the noun. However, in Korean, you would say 식탁 위에 (siktak wie), with the preposition coming after the noun.

Thus, it looks more like a postposition, although grammatically, it serves as a preposition. And as you can see in this example, the preposition on – 위 (wi) – is followed by the particle -에 (-e) in order for the preposition to work grammatically.

If we want to go even more technical with the grammar, the possessive particle 의 (ui) should follow 식탁 (siktak), and turn it into 식탁의 (siktagui). This would also change the direct translation of the phrase 식탁의 위에 (siktagui wie) into “at the tables above.”

However, most often, 의 (ui) is dropped off entirely. Thus, you will likely not ever need it when writing your sentences. But it’s good to know this in case you ever come across sentences using 의 (ui) before the preposition.

Are Korean prepositions used in the same way as English prepositions?

As mentioned above, while Korean prepositions link nouns or pronouns and give the same meaning to the sentence as English prepositions, they are used rather differently. They act more like nouns and are used after the noun they are related to, making them actually postpositions.

In addition, a particle is required to be added after the preposition for proper function. However, do note that for the noun the preposition gets attached to, you can drop the subject marker. In other words, a word like 식탁 (siktak) can appear just as is, rather than as 식탁이 (siktagi).

List of Korean prepositions

Below you can find a list of the most common Korean prepositions.

EnglishKorean in, inside 안 (an) outside 밖 (bak) in front 앞 (ap) next to 옆 (yeop) over, on, above 위 (wi) behind 뒤 (dwi) under, beneath 아래 (arae) under, beneath 밑 (mit) inside, among 속 (sok) in the middle 가운데 (gaunde) between 사이 (sai) near 근처 (geuncheo) across from 건너편 (geonneopyeon) left 왼쪽 (woenjjok) right 오른쪽 (oreunjjok) What are the most common Korean prepositions?

Next, let’s take a closer look at some of these prepositions. As you’re learning Korean this way, you’ll know for certain how and in which situations you can use them.

“Over”/”On”/”Above” in Korean

위 (wi) quite precisely means that something is on top of, so above, something else. For example, a book is on the table, or a pillow is on the bed.

This means that when you want to say something similar to “on the wall,” you cannot use 위 (wi). In this case, you would combine the desired noun with the word 바로 (baro). Additionally, 바로 (baro) should be placed before the noun. In English, it translates as “directly.”

Also, when it is clear in the sentence you are making that something is “on,” “over,” or “above” something, you may also sometimes omit 위. In these situations, simply add 에 (e) directly to the noun, such as table or bed, and the meaning will remain the same.

“Under”/”Beneath” in Korean

In the case of the preposition for under, we have two options: 아래 (arae) and 밑 (mit). However, their usage is quite different from one another.

아래 (arae) means that something is a whole level lower than the topic you are speaking of. Perhaps more easily, think of something being at the bottom of the topic of the sentence when you use 아래 (arae). You can use this on any topic. It can be sunshine, the sky, moonlight, or something else similar, like the sea level.

밑 (mit) can have the same meaning, but in addition, it simply means anything below or at the bottom of a tangible object.

“Inside” in Korean

Again we have two prepositions that mean the same at a quick glance, as both 안 (an) and 속 (sok) mean inside. When using 안 (an), it simply means something is inside rather than outside. However, 속 (sok) means inside, regardless of whether it’s still outside in some way. 속 (sok) also means surrounded.

How are these Korean prepositions used in a sentence?

Here are some example Korean sentences so that you can get a better understanding of Korean prepositions and the usage and placement of these words in a sentence. You can practice how to speak Korean with these examples too!

반지는 상자 안에 있어요. (banjineun sangja ane isseoyo.)

The ring is inside the box.

차 밑에서 열쇠를 찾았어요. (cha miteseo yeolswoereul chajasseoyo.)

I found my keys under the car.

선물이 침대 위에서 기다리고 있어요. (seonmuri chimdae wieseo gidarigo isseoyo.)

The gift is waiting for you on the bed.

밖에서 가장 좋아하는 것은 뭐예요? (bakkeseo gajang joahaneun geoseun mwoyeyo?)

What is your favorite thing to do outside?

우리는 이 산 아래에서 무엇을 찾을 수 있어요? (urineun i san araeeseo mueoseul chajeul su isseoyo?)

What can we find at the bottom of this mountain?

그는 항상 내 마음속에 있어. (geuneun hangsang nae maeumsoke isseo.)

He is in my mind all the time.

옷가게 건너편에 지하철역이 있습니다. (utgage geonneopyeone jihacheolyeoki isseumnida.)

You can find the subway station across the street from the clothing store.

여기서 왼쪽으로 돌까요, 오른쪽으로 돌까요? (yeogiseo woenjjokeuro dulkkayo, oreunjjokeuro dulkkayo?)

Should we turn left or right from here?

식당 앞에서 너를 기다리고 있을 거야. (sikdang apeeseo neoreul gidarigo isseul geoya.)

I will be waiting for you in front of the restaurant.

Wrap Up

Wow! Now you know the most common Korean prepositions and also how to use them! Despite them acting more like postpositions, did you find them easy to understand? With these, you can express phrases like if the location of an object is inside the house, beside the car, etc.

What are these prepositions like in your native language? Let us know by leaving us a comment below! If you’d like to keep learning more similar lessons, head over to our Korean grammar section!

The post Korean prepositions – Describing an object’s position appeared first on 90 Day Korean®.

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Non-native more than 5 years Academy teaching experienced EFL teacher looks for a Friday PT teaching job

Mon, 2022-10-31 14:01
Classified Ad Type: Location: Neighborhood: BusanContact person by email

NON-native, 5 years academy experienced, and 13 years private teaching experienced EFL teacher looking for a part-time Friday class.

Passionate to teaching and is very loyal to work. 

Can work from 3 years, 4 years or more until the manager/owner no longer needs the service. Works very hard, and supplies materials that are best for each class even without the support from the workplace. 

Naturalized Korean, living in Korea, and residing here with family, so possible to be working on a long-term period. 

Korean TOPIK 4th level passer-certificate holder, so is ideal to work with Korean needed extra teaching position.

Email me at [email protected] as very rare to check the Koreabridge personal message.

 

Have a good night!!

 

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American & British Female Teachers Seeking Employment

Mon, 2022-10-31 13:42
Classified Ad Type: Location: Contact person by email

Hello. We are two experienced, children-loving native English speakers seeking teaching positions available to end of November or December. We are on D10 visas. 

One of us is from the USA and the other is from the UK.

We both have a year of experience teaching in Korea as well as previous experience dealing with children. Our current school in Seoul is closing down, so we are looking for a position together starting from November. 

We want positions that guarantee us freedom in the classroom and allow us to be as creative as possible with the children. 

Feel free to contact us with information and questions! Or to see our photographs and resumes! 

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Important Hanja: 화 (化) (한자) | Korean FAQ

Mon, 2022-10-31 13:03

This lesson is all about the Hanja 화, which is written as 化 and means "change." There are many words that come from Hanja and use this, such as 변화 and 화학, but also there are other uses for it at the end of words.

Also let me know if you'd like to see more of these Hanja episodes. I can of course keep making more, as there are plenty of Hanja I haven't yet covered.

The post Important Hanja: 화 (化) (한자) | Korean FAQ appeared first on Learn Korean with GO! Billy Korean.

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Board Games for Sale!

Mon, 2022-10-31 06:58
Classified Ad Type: Location: Neighborhood: YonghoContact person by email

Games for $ale! All prices are based on the current average prices from the Boardgamegeek Marketplace

Add 5k for shipping outside Busan if you can't meet up.

Pictures upon request!

 

SPOOKY HALLOWEEN PRICES

 

1. 7 Ronin - 29k

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2. 18 Holes: KS 2nd Edition + Putting, Wind, & Coastlines Expansion - 79k

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3. Blood Bowl: Team Manager - 29k

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4. Campaign Trail: Deluxe 2nd Edition + Green Party Expansion - 149k

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5. Cyclades + Hades Expansion + Ancient Ruins, Hecate, & Manticore Promos - 149k + FREE HOMEMADE MONUMENTS EXPANSION

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6. Historia - 39k

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7. Neanderthal - 39k

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8. Sail to India - 9k

https://www.boardgamegeek.com/boardgame/141736/sail-india

 

9. Sheepy Time - 29k

https://boardgamegeek.com/boardgame/324242/sheepy-time

 

10. Thebes - 29k

https://boardgamegeek.com/boardgame/30869/thebes

 

11. Ticket to Ride w/ USA 1910 and Alvin & Dexter expansions - 79k

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12. War of the Ring: 2nd Edition + Lords of Middle-Earth Expansion + Treebeard Promo - 209k + FREE MT.DOOM MINI

https://boardgamegeek.com/boardgame/115746/war-ring-second-edition

 

13. Yellow & Yangtze (Korean version, language independent) - 79k

https://boardgamegeek.com/boardgame/244114/yellow-yangtze

 

14. Innovation: Echoes of the Past Expansion - 9k

https://boardgamegeek.com/boardgame/92898/innovation-echoes-past

This DOES NOT COME WITH base Innovation! You need the original game of Innovation to use it!

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Halloween festival turns into a disaster

Sun, 2022-10-30 11:16

S.Korea in mourning with 153 lives lost from the crowd crush in Itaewon, Seoul, during the Halloween festival at 10:15 pm Oct 29Sat). A Halloween costumed crowd estimated at 100,000 was jam-packed in Itaewon district of 82,000 sq.m (20.2 acres) during Halloween revelry. People departing the area ran into people arriving in tightly packed alleyways around Hamilton Hotel. The crush occurred when a group chanted "push, push" to make their way, and the people in front fell. The slope on the narrow street next to Hamilton may have contributed to the disaster as people were sliding under the crowd, falling over each other and toppling like dominos. Most of the deceased were teenagers and people in their 20s, and there were 25 foreign victims. President Yoon Suk-yeol was at the scene the following day and declared a week of national mourning. This is the worst disaster in Korea since the Sewol Ship sink that claimed 304 lives in 2014.


Itaewon has been known for its vibrant nightlife and shopping area for foreigners, and a hot spot for S.Koreans who come to feel American and international cultures since the U.S. 8th Army HQ was stationed there during the Korean War. With the relocation of the 8th Army HQ to Pyeongtaek a couple years ago and with the curse of Covid 19, the business in Itaewon has lost its reputation, and many hoped the first Halloween festival this week in three years without a mask would bring vibrancy to Itaewon. May the young victims rest in peace.



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