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끝말잇기 is a popular word game enjoyed by both native Korean speakers and learners. It can be played by matching the final syllable of a word with the first syllable of another word, and continuing until someone is no longer able to continue the chain. However, there are some "official" (sort of) rules that are followed for every game, which might not be obvious if it's your first time playing.
In this video I'll show you all of the major rules to follow, as well as some things to be aware of to help you play the game more skillfully.—
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Yangchonsa Temple [Yangcheonsa Temple] is located in Kowon [Gowon], Hamyongnam-to, North Korea. And for the rest of this article, it should be noted, that the spelling of North Korean places will use the North Korean style of spelling. Yangchonsa Temple was first founded in 753 A.D. Originally, the temple consisted of a Wontong-jeon Hall and a Kukrak-jeon Hall [Geukrak-jeon Hall].
Very little is known about the temple until 1677, when Yangchonsa Temple was rebuilt by the monk Myo-ryeon. In 1708, the Taeung-jeon Hall [Daeung-jeon Hall] would be constructed. And in 1729, the Manse-ru Pavilion was reconstructed. The bell that hangs inside the current Manse-ru Pavilion was cast in 1693. It stands 1.15 metres in height, and it weighs 373 kg. For awhile, the temple bell was housed at the Hamheung History Museum; then, in the mid-2000s, it was returned to Yangchonsa Temple. It also appears as though there was a Sanshin-gak Hall to the right rear of the Taeung-jeon Hall [Daeung-jeon Hall] at Yangchonsa Temple from the photographic evidence that we have.
During Japanese Colonial Rule (1910-1945), and after the thirty-one headquarter system was created by the Japanese to oversee Buddhist temples throughout Korea, Yangchonsa Temple fell under the administration of Seokwangsa Temple. Sadly, during the Korean War (1950-1953), Yangchonsa Temple was destroyed. The temple shrine halls that now stand at Yangchonsa Temple are post-war reconstructions. However, the Sanshin-gak Hall that formerly stood at Yangchonsa Temple wasn’t rebuilt at this time.Temple Layout
You first approach Yangchonsa Temple [Yangcheonsa Temple] through the mature forest that surrounds the temple. The first structure to greet you at the temple is the Manse-ru Pavilion. This large pavilion is the largest of its kind in North Korea. It has a large, spacious design. Housed inside the Manse-ru Pavilion is the 17th century bell and a light blue mokeo (wooden fish drum). Accompanying these two percussion instruments inside the Manse-ru Pavilion are beautiful dancheong colours and murals. The ceiling of the pavilion is adorned with traditional floral patterns. Just beneath these floral patterns is a beautiful, blue dragon and light pink lotus flower paintings. And there is a floating haetae between these two large murals.
Having passed around the Manse-ru Pavilion, you’ll enter into the main temple courtyard. To your left, and facing the west, you’ll find the Kukrak-jeon Hall [Geukrak-jeon Hall]. This temple shrine hall is simplistically adorned with dancheong colours around its exterior walls. Even the usually intricate eaves of the structure seem to be understated and simplistic, as well. As for the interior of the Kukrak-jeon Hall [Geukrak-jeon Hall], you’ll find an image of Amita-bul (The Buddha of the Western Paradise).
Straight ahead of you, on the other hand, is the Taeung-jeon Hall [Daeung-jeon Hall]. Like the other structures at Yangchonsa Temple [Yangcheonsa Temple], the Taeung-jeon Hall [Daeung-jeon Hall] is a post-Korea War rebuild. However, they seem to have done a pretty good job. The front latticework is made in the traditional floral pattern designs. And if you look up at the eaves of the main hall, you’ll find beautiful, intricate eaves. The dominant green dancheong colours are joined by Gwimyeon (Monster Masks) at each of the roof’s corners. Stepping inside the Taeung-jeon Hall, you’ll find a main altar triad centred by Seokgamoni-bul (The Historical Buddha). This image is joined on either side by Munsu-bosal (The Bodhisattva of Wisdom) and Bohyeon-bosal (The Bodhisattva of Power). This triad is covered by an ornate, red datjib (canopy). And the ceiling of the main hall is adorned with beautiful floral patterns and two dragon sculptures. Also up in the ceiling of the Taeung-jeon Hall [Daeung-jeon Hall], you’ll find a beautiful collection of Bicheon (Flying Heavenly Deities) murals. Around the circumference of the main hall, where the walls and the ceiling meet, you’ll find painted images of the Nahan (The Historical Disciples of the Buddha). And hanging on the far right wall, you’ll find a simplistic Shinjung Taenghwa (Guardian Mural).
Also found on the temple grounds are a collection of stupas. There is also a pair of historic stone guardian posts that appear to be created in the 18th century because they look similar to the ones found at Silsangsa Temple in Namwon, Jeollabuk-do and Bulhoesa Temple in Naju, Jeollanam-do.How To Get There
For now, in today’s political climate, you don’t. But hopefully one day soon we can. Below is a map of where to find Yangchonsa Temple in Kowon [Gowon], Hamgyongnam-to, North Korea.Overall Rating: 7/10
Unfortunately, because nearly everything at Yangchonsa Temple was destroyed during the Korean War, very little is left from its past outside the stone monuments like the stupas and the pair of stone guardian posts. However, they have done a great job in the reconstruction of the Taeung-jeon Hall [Daeung-jeon Hall], and the Manse-ru Pavilion’s interior is absolutely stunning, especially when you include the 17th century temple bell. And adding to the temple’s overall rating is its off-limits location in North Korea.Historical Pictures of Yangchonsa Temple A look inside the Manse-ru Pavilion in 1913. (Picture Courtesy of the Joseon Gojeok Dobo, 1932). The Taeung-jeon Hall [Daeung-jeon Hall] in 1911. (Picture Courtesy of the Joseon Gojeok Dobo, 1932). The floral latticework that adorns the front of the Taeung-jeon Hall [Daeung-jeon Hall] in 1913. (Picture Courtesy of the Joseon Gojeok Dobo, 1932). A look up at the eaves of the Taeung-jeon Hall [Daeung-jeon Hall] in 1913. (Picture Courtesy of the Joseon Gojeok Dobo, 1932). The main altar inside the Taeung-jeon Hall from 1911. (Picture courtesy of the Buddhist Art of North Korea – Documentation in Gelatin Dry Plates). A look around the Taeung-jeon Hall in 1913. (Picture Courtesy of the Joseon Gojeok Dobo, 1932). The Gamno-do (Sweet Dew Mural) that once hung in the Taeung-jeon Hall [Daeung-jeon Hall] in 1911. (Picture courtesy of the Buddhist Art of North Korea – Documentation in Gelatin Dry Plates). An up-close of the Agwi (Hungry Ghost) at the centre of the Gamno-do (Sweet Dew Mural) in 1911. (Picture courtesy of the Buddhist Art of North Korea – Documentation in Gelatin Dry Plates). A Bicheon (Flying Heavenly Deity) from inside the Taeung-jeon Hall [Daeung-jeon Hall] from either 1911 or 1913. (Picture courtesy of the Buddhist Art of North Korea – Documentation in Gelatin Dry Plates). And a picture of one of the stone spirit posts at Yangchonsa Temple from either 1911 or 1913. (Picture courtesy of the Buddhist Art of North Korea – Documentation in Gelatin Dry Plates). Yangchonsa Temple Now A picture of the Manse-ru Pavilion. (Picture courtesy of Naver). A look inside the Manse-ru Pavilion. (Picture courtesy of Naver). And the dragon mural inside the Manse-ru Pavilion. (Picture courtesy of Naver). The 17th century bronze bell inside the Manse-ru Pavilion. (Picture courtesy of Naver). The Kukrak-jeon Hall [Geukrak-jeon Hall]. (Picture courtesy of Naver). And a closer look at the Kukrak-jeon Hall [Geukrak-jeon Hall]. (Picture courtesy of Naver). The Taeung-jeon Hall [Daeung-jeon Hall]. (Picture courtesy of Naver). The front floral latticework that adorns the Taeung-jeon Hall [Daeung-jeon Hall]. (Picture courtesy of Naver). The beautiful latticework on the Taeung-jeon Hall [Daeung-jeon Hall]. (Picture courtesy of Naver). Inside the Taeung-jeon Hall [Daeung-jeon Hall]. (Picture courtesy of Naver). The main altar triad. (Picture courtesy of Naver). Some of the ceiling Bicheon (Flying Heavenly Deities) murals. (Picture courtesy of Naver). One of the Nahan (Historical Disciples of the Buddha) paintings that wraps around the interior of the Taeung-jeon Hall [Daeung-jeon Hall]. (Picture courtesy of Naver). The Shinjung Taenghwa (Guardian Mural) inside the Taeung-jeon Hall [Daeung-jeon Hall]. (Picture courtesy of Naver). One of the stone spirit posts at Yangchonsa Temple [Yangcheonsa Temple]. (Picture courtesy of Naver). And the other at Yangchonsa Temple [Yangcheonsa Temple]. (Picture courtesy of Naver). And the budowon (stupa field) at Yangchonsa Temple [Yangcheonsa Temple]. (Picture courtesy of Naver). —
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In the eighth lesson of this series we'll start to learn more about Honorific Verbs - specifically unique Honorific Verbs, which are not made by attaching the (으)시다 ending to a regular verb but are memorized separately.
We'll also learn about using Honorific Verbs when talking about other people, and also about other things.
The post Master Politeness Levels with Billy Go | #8: Honorific Verbs appeared first on Learn Korean with GO! Billy Korean.—
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Teaching the American Gun Debate in a Foreign Country: No Matter What You Say, They Think We’re Bananas
US politics is part of my teaching load here in Korea. And part of that is, inevitably, the US gun debate. Foreigners just don’t get the US fascination with guns at all, and that is putting it mildly.
I have lived outside the US for almost 18 years – in East Asia and Western Europe – and I have discussed guns in America with non-Americans countless times given that my area is political science. Non-Americans are genuinely curious why we allow private fire arm ownership, especially when it so obviously correlates with gun violence. I can say that I have never had a non-American ever tell me they wished their country had US gun laws. Not one.
In short, there is no other country in the world which approaches guns with the laxity we do. No other conservative party in a democracy approaches guns as the GOP does. Often my students here often don’t even understand how gun ownership is a ‘conservative’ or partisan issue, which is something Americans should know. Righties in other countries are not gun fetishists. Even other societies with a frontier tradition – Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, Russia – don’t have the gun culture we do.
No one else thinks about Mad Max government collapse scenarios which would require you to be armed. (Trying to explain that one to non-Americans is almost impossible.)
No one else talks about an ‘armed citizenry’ resisting tyranny. When you try to explain this one, my students often can’t even figure out why they would battling their own democratic government. Good question! And then they wonder how regular Americans with guns could outshoot the cops or the military. They can’t, of course. Another good question!
And very definitely, no one wants armed teachers, metal detectors in schools, open carry, concealed carry, and so on. Hardening schools and letting regular people walk around packing strikes them as insanely dangerous.
Inevitably then, I get three or four papers a year in my US politics class on guns, and they’re uniformly negative and incredulous. One particular title I remember from years back: ‘The US is a Gun-ocracy.’ That just about sums it up.—Robert E Kelly
Department of Political Science & Diplomacy
Pusan National University
Daeunam Hermitage is located on the southern part of the Mt. Yonggaksan (696.8 m) mountain range on Mt. Oryesan in northeastern Cheongdo, Gyeongsangbuk-do. Daeunam Hermitage was first established in 1868 near the end of the Joseon Dynasty (1392-1910). Daeunam Hermitage was eventually destroyed in the 1900s by fire, and it would be rebuilt by Buam-seonsa in 1930. More recently, Daeunam Hermitage has grown in size with the additions of the Sanshin-gak Hall in 1996, the dorms in 1998, and the Gwaneum-jeon Hall in 2000.
Daeunam Hermitage is also home to Gyeongsangbuk-do Cultural Property Material #309, which is the Seated Wooden Gwaneum-bosal Statue and Accompanying Relics of Daeunam Hermitage.Hermitage Layout
You first approach Daeunam Hermitage up a long valley and a road that winds its way up the mountainside. The road runs for about four kilometres, and it allows for some pretty remarkable views of rural Cheongdo down below.
When you finally crest the mountain, you’ll be welcomed by the monks’ dorms that lay in front of you. Slightly to the right, and placed rather precariously on the mountain’s face, is the Dokseong-gak Hall. In this shaman shrine hall is a colourful, solitary image dedicated to Dokseong (The Lonely Saint).
Slightly to the left of these two buildings, but still in the same area, is another building. This building is the administrative office at the hermitage, which has an amazing view of the valley down below. If you’re lucky enough, a monk will invite you in for a cup of tea.
Directly behind the administrative office, and up a steep and uneven set of stairs, is the Gwaneum-jeon Hall. The exterior walls to the main hall are adorned with green-tinged Shimu-do (Ox-Herding Murals). As for the interior, you’ll find a solitary image of Gwanseeum-bosal (The Bodhisattva of Compassion) on the main altar. This is the Seated Wooden Gwaneum-bosal Statue and Accompanying Relics of Daeunam Hermitage. According to a scroll discovered inside the image of Gwanseeum-bosal, this wooden image of the Bodhisattva of Compassion was first enshrined at Banryongsa Temple in 1654. It was moved to Daeunam Hermitage in 1930 when Daeunam Hermitage was rebuilt. As for the relics inside the image of Gwanseeum-bosal, a collection of sutras from woodblocks carved during the early Joseon Dynasty (1392-1910) were discovered. The image of Gwanseeum-bosal rests under a red canopy lined with blue painted trim up near the top of the canopy. In the centre of this wavy blue cloud-like designs is a manja (swastika) symbol in the front centre. Gwanseeum-bosal is backed by a beautiful black mural of herself. To the right of the main altar, on the other hand, is a mural dedicated to Jijang-bosal (The Bodhisattva of the Afterlife). And to the left of the main altar appears a mural dedicated to Chilseong (The Seven Stars). Next to this image of Chilseong hangs a golden relief of the Shinjung Taenghwa (Guardian Mural). And the final mural housed inside the Gwaneum-jeon Hall is a mural dedicated to the founding monk at Daeunam Hermitage.
To the left of the Gwaneum-jeon Hall, but still in the upper courtyard, is a miniature main hall. Yep, you heard me right. It’s a Barbie house for Buddhism. Inside are three diminutive Buddhist statues, as well. Not sure of its meaning, but it definitely surprised me. As you walk in this direction, you’ll also notice another hall with an intense yellow tiger painted on it. It appears to have once been the Sanshin-gak Hall that’s potentially being converted. It’s also from this former shaman shrine hall that you get some amazing views of Cheongdo in the valley below.
So if the old Sanshin-gak Hall is being converted, where is the new one? Well, squeezed between the Gwaneum-jeon Hall and a row of monks’ dorms is a stone staircase that leads up towards the peak of the mountain. Crowning the hermitage grounds is the newly built Sanshin-gak Hall. Stepping inside the Sanshin-gak Hall, you’ll find an amazing male and female Sanshin (Mountain Spirit) mural. This pair is quite rare in a Sanshin mural, so enjoy it as well as the view that the two get to enjoy.How To Get There
From the Cheongdo Intercity Bus Terminal, you’ll need to take a taxi to get to Daeunam Hermitage. It’s 16 km, or 30 minutes, and it’ll cost you around 15,000 won (one way).Overall Rating: 6/10
The amazing views are one of the main highlights to be found at Daeunam Hermitage. In fact, the views are second only to a handful of other hermitages in Korea. Adding to the hermitage’s natural beauty is the historical Gwanseeum-bosal statue inside the Gwaneum-jeon Hall, as well as the male and female Sanshin (Mountain Spirit) in the Sanshin-gak Hall. The hermitage is definitely a quaint little getaway from the more popular temples and hermitages in Korea. So enjoy the tranquility.The road leading up to Daeunam Hermitage. The hermitage grounds. The Dokseong-gak Hall at Daeunam Hermitage. And the image of Dokseong (The Lonely Saint) inside the shaman shrine hall. The Gwaneum-jeon Hall at Daeunam Hermitage. The main altar inside the Gwaneum-jeon Hall with the Seated Wooden Gwaneum-bosal Statue and Accompanying Relics of Daeunam Hermitage in the centre. The golden relief of the Shinjung Taenghwa (Guardian Mural). The Chilseong (Seven Stars) mural housed inside the Gwaneum-jeon Hall. As well as a mural dedicated to Jijang-bosal (The Bodhisattva of the Afterlife) inside the Gwaneum-jeon Hall. And the miniature main hall to the left of the Gwaneum-jeon Hall. The view from the trail leading up to the Sanshin-gak Hall. And the male and female Sanshin (Mountain Spirit) housed inside the shaman shrine hall. The beautiful view of the valley below. —
Korean Adverbs are another part of Korean grammar greatly connected with Korean verbs and adjectives. It can be put to use in sentences, but also phrases and clauses – so basically, it can be a useful addition to any type of written or spoken word!
Adverbs may not be as easy to detect in sentences as Korean verbs, adjectives, and nouns might be. However, by the end of this article, we’re confident that you’ll learn Korean adverbs’ rules and master them!What are Korean adverbs?
Korean Adverbs are used to describe a verb or an adjective further. You can expect Korean adverbs to operate largely in a similar fashion as they do in other languages. There are three ways in which adverbs are created and used in the Korean language, and at least 100 commonly used Korean adverbs.
Before moving onto the list of Korean adverbs we want to equip you with right away, let’s look at the Korean grammar rules with which adverbs are formed.
Do note that there are also numerous adverbs, such as some adverbs related to frequency, which do not need to follow any of these rules and simply stand on their own. In their case, you, unfortunately, have no option but to memorize which adverbs follow the rules and which do not.
Thankfully there are quite clear steps regarding what kind of adverbs fit which rule category. And to make memorizing a little easier, we’ve included the special adverbs that aren’t conjugated by any rules as a separate chart for you to memorize from.1) 히 (hi)
The conjugation 히 (hi) is used when you form action verbs into adverbs. This is usually added to action verbs that end with -하다 (hada). To do that, you replace -하다 (hada) in the dictionary form of the word with 히 (hi).
For example:English VerbKorean VerbEnglish AdverbKorean Adverb to decide결정하다 (gyeoljeonghada)decisively결정히 (gyeoljeonghi) to joke농담하다 (nongdamhada)jokingly농담히 (nongdamhi)
In this example, both 결정하다 (gyeoljeonghada) and 농담하다 (nongdamhada) end with -하다 (hada). However, in order to turn them from action verbs into adverbs, the 하다 (hada) gets removed and is replaced by the syllable 히 (hi). This is the case with all -하다 (hada) endings that are action verbs. Note that with adjectives using 하다 (hada) endings, a different rule is used to form adverbs, as is presented below.2) ~게 (ge)
With ~게 (ge) conjugations, you can make an adverb in Korean out of an adjective. In this case, you keep the entire word stem and simply replace 다 (ge) with 게 (ge).
For example:Korean AdjectiveEnglish AdjectiveEnglish AdverbKorean Adverb 크다 (keuda)
big in a big manner크게 (keuke) 건조하다 (geonjohada)
dry dryly건조하게 (geonjohage) 나쁘다 (nappeuda)
As you can see in the above examples, 다 (da) gets removed from the verb stem, and 게 (ge) gets added, and a Korean adverb is thus formed. Do note that in the case of some adjectives with -하다 (hada) endings, the syllable 히 (hi)-rule is used. You, unfortunately, simply have to learn to memorize these different adverbs in Korean that “break” the rule.3) ~으로
Finally, the third way of forming Korean adverbs. Technically, ~으로 (euro) is a post-position, not an adverb. But when used together with adjectives, you can create adverbs from it. In English, 으로 (euro) translates as “in some way,” which helps explain why it can be used in adverb form as well. It’s used with adjectives that end in the suffix 적 (jeok).
For example:English AdjectiveKorean AdjectiveEnglish AdverbKorean Adverb rational 이성적 (iseongjeok)rationally이성적으로 (iseongjeogeuro) economical경제적 (gyeongjejeok)economically경제적으로 (gyeongjejeogeuro)
With each adjective in the example above, the great thing is that you don’t have to remove any part of it; you just simply add 으로 (euro)!List of Korean adverbs
Below you can find lists of Korean vocabulary formed from adjectives to their adverb form, which you can also start using right away.Korean adverbs of degree
If you’d like to describe something in terms of its degree or intensity, these are the adverbs that you can use.English VerbKorean VerbEnglish AdverbKorean Adverb bad 나쁘다 (nappeuda) badly 나쁘게 (nappeuge) certain 확실하다 (hwaksilhada) certainly, decidedly 확실히 (hwaksilhi) complete 완전하다 (wanjeonhada) completely 완전히 (wanjeonhi) complete, absolute, entire 전적 (jeonjeok) completely, absolutely, entirely 전적으로 (jeonjeogeuro) continuous 지속적 (jisokjeok) continually 지속적으로 (jisokjeogeuro) detailed 구체적 (guchejeok) in detail, concretely 구체적으로 (guchejeogeuro) endless 끝없다 (kkeuteopda) endlessly 끝없이 (kkeuteopsi) enourmous 엄청나다 (eomcheongnada) enormously 엄청나게 (eomcheongnage) even, regular 고르다 (goreuda) evenly 고르게 (goreuge) faint, dim 희미하다 (huimihada) faintly, dimly 희미하게 (huimihage) far 멀다 (meolda) far 멀게 (meolge) fervent, devout 열렬하다 (yeollyeolhada) fervently 열렬하게 (yeollyeolhage) full 충분하다 (chungbunhada) fully 충분히 (chungbunhi) fundamental 기본적 (gibonjeok) fundamentally 기본적으로 (gibonjeogeuro) great 대단하다 (daedanhada) greatly 대단히 (daedanhi) intense, passionate, ardent 열정적 (yeoljeongjeok) intensely, passionately 열정적으로 (yeoljeongjeogeuro) large 크다 (keuda) largely 크게 (keuge) light 가볍다 (gabyeopda) lightly 가볍게 (gapyeopge) perfect 완벽하다 (wanbyeokada) perfectly 완벽하게 (wanbyeokage) positive 긍정적 (geungjeongjeok) positively 긍정적으로 (geungjeongjeogeuro) relative 상대적 (sangdaejeok) relatively 상대적으로 (sangdaejeogeuro) simple 간단하다 (gandanhada) simply 간단히 (gandanhi) small 작다 (jakda) little 작게 (jakge) special 특별하다 (teukbyeolhada) especially 특별히 (teukbyeolhi) strong 강하다 (ganghada) strongly 강하게 (ganghage) sufficient 충분하다 (chungbunhada) sufficiently, enough 충분히 (chungbunhi) thorough 철저하다 (cheoljeohada) thoroughly 철저히 (cheoljeohi) Korean adverbs of degree without rules
Below is another set of adverbs of degree. However, these do not follow any rules.English AdverbKorean Adverb almost, nearly, virtually 거의 (geoui) especially 특히 (teuki) extremely 극도로 (geukdoro) extremely, so, utterly 아주 (aju) fairly, quite, rather 꽤 (kkwae) hardly, scarcely 겨우 (gyeou) highly 고도로 (godoro) indeed 과연 (gwayeon) less 더 적게 (deo jeokge) most 제일 (jeil) practically, virtually 사실상 (sasilsang) somewhat 약간 (yakgan) too 너무 (neomu) very 매우 (maeu) well 잘 (jal) Korean adverbs of frequency
Here are the common adverbs in terms of frequency. They describe how often things occur or happen.English AdjectiveKorean AdjectiveEnglish AdverbKorean Adverb general 일반적 (ilbanjeok) generally 일반적으로 (ilbanjeogeuro) regular, periodic 주기적 (jugijeok) regularly 주기적으로 (jugijeogeuro) chronic 고질적 (gojiljeok) chronically 고질적으로 (gojiljeogeuro) rare 드물다 (deumulda) rarely, sparsely 드물게 (deumulge) late 늦다 (neutda) late 늦게 (neutge) Korean adverbs of frequency without any rule
Similar to Korean adverbs of degree, some adverbs of frequency also do not follow any rule. Here are some of them.English AdverbKorean Adverb always 항상 (hangsang) always 언제나 (eonjena) all the time 내내 (naenae) daily 나날이 (nanari) daily 일일 (ilil) usually, normally 보통 (botong) frequently, often 자주 (jaju) occasionally 가끔 (gakkeum) sometimes 때때로 (ttaettaero) seldom 좀처럼 (jomcheoreom) never 결코 (gyeolko) annually 매년 (maenyeon) soon, instantly 곧 (got) eventually 결국 (gyeolguk) hourly 매 시 (mae si) nightly 밤마다 (bammada) weekly 주간 (jugan) fortnightly 격주로 (gyeokjuro) monthly 매월 (maewol) yearly 매년 (maenyeon) already 이미 (imi) already 벌써 (beolsseo) at long last 드디어 (deudieo) before 전에 (jeone) earlier 앞선 (apseon) early 일찍 (iljjik) finally 마침네 (machimne) first 우선 (useon) first 처음 (cheoeum) last 마지막 (majimak) lately 최근에 (choegeune) next 다음으로 (daeumeuro) previously 이전에 (ijeone) recently 최근에 (choegeune) still 아직도 (ajikdo) yet 아직 (ajik) Korean adverbs of manner
The words below are used to describe the action and descriptive verbs in terms of manner.English AdjectiveKorean AdjectiveEnglish AdverbKorean Adverb abnormal 비정상적 (bijeongsangjeok) abnormally 비정상적으로 (bijeongsangjeogeuro) accidental 우연하다 (uyeonhada) accidentally, by chance 우연히 (uyeonhi) active 적극적 (jeokgeukjeok) actively 적극적으로 (jeokgeukjeogeuro) active, energetic 활기차다 (hwalgichada) actively, energetically 활기차게 (hwalgichage) adventurous 모험적 (moheomjeok) adventurously 모험적으로 (moheomjeogeuro) angry 화나다 (hwanada) angrily 화나게 (hwanage) animated, brisk 활발하다 (hwalbalhada) animatedly, briskly 활발하게 (hwalbalhage) anxious 불안하다 (buranhada) anxiously 불안하게 (buranhage) arrogant 거만하다 (geomanhada) arrogantly 거만하게 (geomanhage) automatic 자동적 (jadongjeok) automatically 자동으로 (jadongeuro) awkward 어섹하다 (eosekhada) awkwardly 어색하게 (eosekhage) bad 나쁘다 (nappeuda) badly 나쁘게 (nappeuge) bashful 부끄럽다 (bukkeureopda) bashfully 부끄럽게 (bukkeureopge) beautiful 아름답다 (areumdapda) beautifully 아름답게 (areumdapge) beautiful (a man’s action) 멋지다 (meotjida) beautifully 멋지게 (meotjige) big 크다 (keuda) in a big manner 크게 (keuge) bitter, grief-stricken, sorrowful 비통하다 (bitonghada) bitterly 비통하게 (bitonghage) bleak 아슬아슬하다 (aseulaseulhada) bleakly 아슬아슬하게 (aseulaseulhage) blind 맹목적 (maengmokjeok) blindly 맹목적으로 (maengmokjeogeuro) boastful 자랑스럽다 (jarangseureopda) boastfully 자랑스럽게 (jarangseureopge) bold, daring 대담하다 (daedamhada) boldly, daringly 대담하게 (daedamhage) brave 용감하다 (yonggamhada) bravely 용감하게 (yonggamhage) bright 밝다 (balda) brightly 밝게 (balge) busy 바쁘다 (bappeuda) busily 바쁘게 (bappeuge) calm, hushed, still 고요하다 (goyohada) calmly 고요히 (goyohi) careful 꼼꼼하다 (kkomkkomhada) carefully 꼼꼼히 (kkomkkomhi) careful, cautious 조심스럽다 (josimseureopda) carefully, cautiously 조심스럽게 (josimseureopge) careless 경솔하다 (gyeongsolhada) carelessly 경솔하게 (gyeongsolhage) cautious 신중하다 (sinjunghada) cautiously 신중히 (sinjunghi) cheerful 유쾌하다 (yukwaehada) cheerfully 유쾌하게 (yukwaehage) clean 깨끗하다 (kkaekkeuthada) cleanly 깨끗하게 (kkaekkeuthage) clear 분명하다 (bunmyeonghada) clearly, decidedly 분명히 (bunmyeonghi) clever 영리하다 (yeongnihada) cleverly 영리하게 (yeongnihage) comfortable 편하다 (pyeonhada) comfortably 편하게 (pyeonhage) convenient 편리하다 (pyeollihada) conveniently 편리하게 (pyeollihage) cool 쿨하다 (kulhada) coolly 쿨하게 (kulhage) cooperative 협동적 (hyeopdongjeok) cooperatively 협동적으로 (hyeopdongjeogeuro) correct 올바르다 (olbareuda) correctly 올바르게 (olbareuge) courageous 용기있다 (yonggiitda) courageously 용기있게 (yonggiitge) cruel 잔인하다 (janinhada) cruelly 잔인하게 (janinhage) dangerous 위험하다 (wiheomhada) dangerously 위험하게 (wiheomhage) deceiving 기만적 (gimanjeok) deceivingly 기만적으로 (gimanjeogeuro) defiant 도전적 (dojeonjeok) defiantly 도전적으로 (dojeonjeogeuro) deliberate 신중하다 (sinjunghada) deliberately 신중하게 (sinjunghage) delicious 맛있다 (masitda) deliciously 맛있게 (masitge) detailed 자세하다 (jasehada) in detail 자세히 (jasehi) difficult 어렵다 (eoryeopda) with difficulty, the hard way 어렵게 (eoryeopge) diligent 부지런하다 (bujireonhada) diligently 부지런히 (bujireonhi) doubtful 애매하다 (aemaehada) doubtfully 애매하게 (aemaehage) dramatic 극적 (geukjeok) dramatically 극적으로 (geukjeogeuro) easy, simple 용이하다 (yongihada) easily, simply 용이하게 (yongihage) elegant, graceful 우아하다 (uahada) elegantly, gracefully, daintily 우아하게 (uahage) enormous, great 엄청나다 (eomcheongnada) enormously, greatly 엄청나게 (eomcheongnage) enthusiasm, enthusiastic 열심 (yeolsim) enthusiastically 열심히 (yeolsimhi) enthusiastic 열정적 (yeoljeongjeok) enthusiastically 열정적으로 (yeoljeongjeogeuro) exact 정확하다 (jeonghwakada) exactly 정확히 (jeonghwaki) excited 신나다 (sinnada) excitedly 신나게 (sinnage) faithful 충실하다 (chungsilhada) faithfully 충실히 (chungsilhi) famous 뛰어나다 (ttwieonada) famously 뛰어나게 (ttwieonage) fast, quick 빠르다 (ppareuda) fast, quickly, swiftly 빠르게 (ppareuge) fatal 치명적 (chimyeongjeok) fatally 치명적으로 (chimyeongjeogeuro) fervent, enthusiastic, wild 열광적 (yeolgwangjeok) ferventely, enthusiastically, wildly 열광적으로 (yeolgwangjeogeuro) fierce, ferocious, vehement, violent 맹렬하다 (maengnyeolhada) fiercely, ferociously, vehemently 맹렬하게 (maengnyeolhage) fierce, stormy, wild 사납다 (sanapda) fiercely 사납게 (sanapge) fond 허황되다 (heohwangdoeda) fondly 허황되게 (heohwangdoege) formal 공식적 (gongsikjeok) formally 공식적으로 (gongsikjeogeuro) fortunate, lucky 다행스럽다 (dahaengseureopda) fortunately, luckily 다행스럽게 (dahaengseureopge) free 자유롭다 (jayuropda) freely 자유롭게 (jayuropge) frightful, scary 무섭다 (museopda) frightfully 무섭게 (museopge) fun 재미있다 (jaemiitda) entertainingly 재미있게 (jaemiitge) furious, ferocious, fierce, vehement, violent 맹렬하다 (maengnyeolhada) furiously, ferociously, fiercely, vehemently, violently 맹렬히 (maengnyeolhi) generous 관대하다 (gwandaehada) generously 관대하게 (gwandaehage) gentle, soft 부드럽다 (budeureopda) gently, softly 부드럽게 (budeureopge) glad 기쁘다 (gippeuda) gladly 기쁘게 (gippeuge) greedy 게걸스럽다 (gegeolseureopda) greedily 게걸스럽게 (gegeolseureopge) happy 행복하다 (haengbokada) happily, blissfully 행복하게 (haengbokage) hasty 황급하다 (hwanggeupada) hastily 황급히 (hwanggeupi) healthy 건강하다 (geonganghada) healthily 건강하게 (geonganghage) heavy 무겁다 (mugeopda) heavily 무겁게 (mugeopge) honest, frank, open 솔직하다 (soljikada) honestly, frankly, openly 솔직히 (soljiki) humble 천하다 (cheonhada) humbly 천하게 (cheonhage) informal 비공식적 (bigongsik) informally 비공식적으로 (bigongsikjeogeuro) innocent 천진난만하다 (cheonjinnanmanhada) innocently 천진난만하게 (cheonjinnanmanhage) innovative 획기적 (hoekgijeok) innovatively 획기적으로 (hoekgijeogeuro) instinctive 본능적 (bonneungjeok) instinctively 본능적으로 (jijeogeuro) intentional 의도적 (uidojeok) intentionally 의도적으로 (uidojeogeuro) irritable 과민하다 (gwaminhada) irritably 과민하게 (gwaminhage) kind 친절하다 (chinjeolhada) kindly 친절하게 (chinjeolhage) long-term 장기적 (jangijeok) in the long term 장기적으로 (janggijeogeuro) loose 느슨하다 (neuseunhada) loosely 느슨하게 (neuseunhage) loud 소란하다 (soranhada) loudly 소란하게 (soranhage) manual 수동적 (sudongjeok) manually 수동으로 (sudongeuro) meticulous, detailed 면밀하다 (myeonmilhada) meticulously 면밀하게 (myeonmilhage) miraculous 기적적 (gijeokjeok) miraculously 기적적으로 (gijeokjeogeuro) mortal 치명적 (chimyeongjeok) mortally 치명적으로 (chimyeongjeogeuro) mysterious 신비롭다 (sinbiropda) mysteriously 신비롭게 (sinbiropge) natural 자연스럽다 (jayeonseureopda) naturally 자연스럽게 (jayeonseureopge) neat 깔끔하다 (kkalkkeumhada) neatly 깔끔하게 (kkalkkeumhage) nervous 초조하다 (chojohada) nervously 초조하게 (chojohage) noisy 시끄럽다 (sikkeureopda) noisily 시끄럽게 (sikkeureopge) obedient 순순하다 (sunsunhada) obediently 순순히 (sunsunhi) painful 고통스럽다 (gotongseureopda) painfully 고통스럽게 (gotongseureopge) patient 끈기 있다 (kkeungi itda) patiently 끈기 있게 (kkeungi itge) personal 사적 (sajeok) personally 사적으로 (sajeogeuro) physical 신체적 (sinchejeok) physically 신체적으로 (sinchejeogeuro) pleasant 즐겁다 (jeulgeopda) pleasantly, delightfully 즐겁게 (jeulgeopge) polite 공손하다 (gongsonhada) politely 공손히 (gongsonhi) poor, low 저조하다 (jeojohada) poorly 저조하게 (jeojohage) powerful 강력하다 (gangnyeokada) powerfully 강력하게 (gangnyeokage) pretty 이쁘다 (ippeuda) prettily 이쁘게 (ippeuge) psychological 심리적 (simnijeok) psychologically 심리적으로 (simnijeogeuro) qualitative 질적 (jiljeok) qualitatively 질적으로 (jiljeogeuro) quiet 조용하다 (joyonghada) quietly 조용하게 (joyonghage) rapid 급속하다 (geupsokada) rapidly 급속히 (geupsoki) reckless 무모하다 (mumohada) recklessly 무모하게 (mumohage) rightful 정당하다 (jeongdanghada) rightfully 정당하게 (jeongdanghage) rude 무례하다 (muryehada) rudely 무례하게 (muryehage) sad 슬프다 (seulpeuda) sadly 슬프게 (seulpeuge) safe 안전하다 (anjeonhada) safely 안전하게 (anjeonhage) selfish 이기적 (igijeok) selfishly 이기적으로 (igijeogeuro) serious 진지하다 (jinjihada) seriously 진지하게 (jinjihage) sharp 날카롭다 (nalkaropda) sharply 날카롭게 (nalkaropge) short-term 단기적 (dangijeok) in the short term 단기적으로 (dangijeogeuro) shy 수줍다 (sujupda) shyly 수줍게 (sujupge) silent 조용하다 (joyonghada) silently 조용하게 (joyonghage) simple, easy, brief 간단하다 (gandanhada) briefly, simply, easily 간단히 (gandanhi) slow 천천하다 (cheoncheonhada) slowly 천천히 (cheoncheonhi) smooth 매끄럽다 (maekkeureopda) smoothly 매끄럽게 (maekkeureopge) soft 부드럽다 (budeureopda) softly 부드럽게 (budeureopge) solemn 엄숙하다 (eomsukada) solemnly 엄숙하게 (eomsukage) stern 엄하다 (eomhada) sternly 엄하게 (eomhage) straight 똑바르다 (ttokbareuda) straightly 똑바르게 (ttokbareuge) strict 엄격하다 (eomgyeokada) strictly 엄격히 (eomgyeoki) stupid 멍청하다 (meongcheonghada) stupidly 멍청하게 (meongcheonghage) successful 성공적 (seonggongjeok) successfully 성공적으로 (seonggongjeogeuro) suspicious 의심스럽다 (uisimseureopda) suspiciously 의심스럽게 (uisimseureopge) tender 다정하다 (dajeonghada) tenderly 다정하게 (dajeonghage) tentative 시험적 (siheomjeok) tentatively 시험적으로 (jamjeongjeogeuro) thoughtful, considerate 사려 깊다 (saryeo gipda) thoughtfully, wisely 사려 깊게 (saryeo gipge) tight 단단하다 (dandanhada) tightly 단단히 (dandanhi) truthful 정직하다 (jeongjikada) truthfully 정직하게 (jeongjikage) unfortunate, sorry 유감스럽다 (yugamseureopda) regrettably 유감스럽게 (yugamseureopge) vacant, blank, absentminded 망연하다 (mangyeonghada) vacantly, blankly, absentmindedly 망연히 (mangyeonhi) violent 격렬하다 (gyeongnyeolhada) violently 격렬하게 (gyeongnyeolhage) vivacious 활발하다 (hwalbalhada) vivaciously 활발하게 (hwalbalhage) warm 따뜻하다 (ttatteuthada) warmly 따뜻하게 (ttatteuthage) weak 약하다 (yakada) weakly 약하게 (yakage) Korean adverbs of place
If you’d like to talk about a certain location of an object or a person, below are the common adverbs of place.English AdverbKorean Adverb about 약 (yak) above 위에 (wie) abroad 해외에 (haeoee) anywhere 아무데나 (amudena) away 떨어져 (tteoreojyeo) back, behind 뒤에 (dwie) backwards (also backward) 뒤로 (dwiro) below, under 아래에 (araee) down 아래로 (araero) downstairs 아래층으로 (araecheungeuro) elsewhere 다른 곳에서 (dareun goseseo) everywhere 어디나 (eodina) far 멀리 (meolli) forward 앞으로 (apeuro) here 여기에 (yeogie) home 집에 (jibe) in 안속에 (ansoge) indoors 실내에서 (sillaeeseo) inside 안에 (ane) near 가까이 (gakkai) nearby 인근에 (ingeune) nowhere 어디에도 (eodiedo) out, outside 바깥에 (bakkate) over there 저쪽에 (jeojjoge) there 저기에 (jeogie) upstairs 위층으로 (wicheungeuro) Korean adverbs of time
The words below refer to the adverb of time. These describe when events happened or will happen.English AdverbKorean Adverb now 지금 (jigeum) now 이제 (ije) then 그때 (geuttae) today 오늘 (oneul) tomorrow 내일 (naeil) tonight 오늘밤 (oneulbam) yesterday 어제 (eoje) afterward, afterwards 기후 (gihu) afterwards 그 뒤에 (geu dwie) later 나중에 (najunge) Other adverbs in Korean without rules
Similar to adverbs on frequency, here are other adverbs that do not follow any rule.English AdverbKorean Adverb absentmindedly 무심코 (musimko) actually, really, in reality 실제로 (siljero) almost 거의 (geoui) alone 혼자 (honja) bitterly 몹시 (mopsi) broadly 대체로 (daechero) carelessly 함부로 (hamburo) certainly, absolutely 틀림없이 (teullimeopsi) closely 바싹 (bassak) continuously, repeatedly 자꾸 (jakku) deeply 깊이 (kipi) deliberately 일부러 (ilbureo) deliberately 고의로 (gouiro) equally 같이 (gati) even 조차 (jocha) fast 빨리 (ppalli) foolishly 바보같이 (babogachi) for sure 꼭 (kkok) gladly 기꺼이 (gikkeoi) in person 직접 (jikjeop) madly 미친 듯이 (michin deusi) promptly 즉시 (jeuksi) really 정말로 (jeongmallo) roughly 대충 (daechung) separately 따로 (ttaro) stealthily 몰래 (mollae) suddenly 갑자기 (gapjagi) together 함께 (hamkke) unexpectedly 뜻밖에 (tteutbakke) Examples of the Most Common Korean Adverbs in Sentences
Finally, here are a few example sentences to get you started on understanding how to use and place adverbs in a sentence.
솔직히 말하면 이 일은 제가 혼자 하기에 너무 복잡해요.
(soljiki malhamyeon i ireun jega honja hagie neomu bokjapaeyo.)
Honestly speaking, this task is too complex for me to do alone.
밤에 기차역에서 집까지 안전하게 갈 수 있나요?
(bame gichayeogeseo jipkkaji anjeonhage gal su innayo?)
Can you get home from the train station safely at night?
우리는 마지막 순간에 기적적으로 이겼어요.
(urineun majimak sungane gijeokjeogeuro igyeosseoyo.)
We miraculously won the game at the very last minute.
미나와 함께 하면 두 배 빨리 끝낼 수 있어요.
(minawa hamkke hamyeon du bae ppalli kkeunnael su isseoyo.)
If we do this together with Mina, we can finish twice as quickly.
나는 고기를 좀처럼 먹지 않아.
(naneun gogireul jomcheoreom meokji ana.)
I seldom eat meat.
Feel free to sit anywhere.
Now that you’ve found yourself equipped with a huge list of Korean adverbs and some example sentences aiding you in using them, you’re one step further in using the Korean language as naturally and colorfully as possible. As you learn Korean, you’ll highly appreciate gaining knowledge of these Korean adverbs.
What kind of adverbs do you most like? Which ones do you think will be tough to memorize? Let us know in the comments! If you’d prefer a lighter lesson next as you study Korean, how about learning some fun Korean exclamations?
The post Korean adverbs – Words that describe verbs and adjectives appeared first on 90 Day Korean®.—
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My wife and I have another business that will require our full attention from this summer onward and have decided to put our hagwon up for sale.
The location is prime. It's directly across the street from an elementary school, near capacit, and the asking price is far less than thr school makes in a year.
It would be ideal for a native speaker/Korean couple to take over.—
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