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Part-time teacher

Wed, 2022-06-22 04:11
Classified Ad Type: Location: Neighborhood: Contact person by email

I am looking for a part-time teaching position in Busan or can work as a substitute teacher. I have previous experience teaching children. The preferred time is in the evenings (weekdays) or any time at weekends

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10 Spelling Games for Class

Tue, 2022-06-21 12:08

10 Spelling Games you can play in class

YouTube Channel: Etacude

ERIC O. WESCH

Teacher/YouTuber

[email protected]

      

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Independence Day Event

Tue, 2022-06-21 05:08
Classified Ad Type: Location: Neighborhood: BusanContact person by email

Meet Independence Day event from BGN Eye Hospital!

Were you considering Laser Vision Correction for a while?

Than this is the time to make your first step to 20/20 vision and save maximum on Laser Vision Correction!

Only from June 23rd to July 9th save 300,000 KRW off the one-day recovery SMILE surgery!

Meet 4th of July with your clear vision!

1 day will be enough for examination, surgery and recovery!

Wish to learn more or book a free LASIK consultation and examination?

Contact us today:

Phone: 010-7670-3995

kakao: eye1004bgnbusan

Email: [email protected]

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World Of Fear #161

Tue, 2022-06-21 02:08
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“ㄴ Addition” – A Lesser Known Sound Change Rule (ㄴ 첨가) | Korean FAQ

Mon, 2022-06-20 11:12

Learning every sound change rule in Korean can take a long time, and is usually not necessary in the beginning stages. Simply being exposed to enough Korean, combined with the knowledge of the basic sound change rules, is often enough to get going.

This is a sound change rule that even many Korean speakers are not aware that they're making, and it has to do with the sound 이 and the letter ㄴ. It's known as ㄴ첨가 and is an important sound change rule to learn - especially if you've encountered words that use this rule but weren't aware why it happens.

The post “ㄴ Addition” – A Lesser Known Sound Change Rule (ㄴ 첨가) | Korean FAQ appeared first on Learn Korean with GO! Billy Korean.

www.GoBillyKorean.com

 

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Teaching job wanted

Mon, 2022-06-20 08:58
Classified Ad Type: Location: Neighborhood: Contact person by email

Thank you for taking the time to read my post.....

I am looking for teaching jobs to fill my schedule during the summer as i await my full time position to commence in September.

So any temporary part-time, full time or summer camp work would be suitable.

I have over 10 years teaching experience from kindergarten to adults.

If you require any further information or you have any work available, contact me.

Thanks again for you time,

Regards

M

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MeMe Festival - Meditation for Mindful teens festival

Mon, 2022-06-20 06:40
Date: Tuesday, August 2, 2022 - 10:00Location: Event Type: 

“Meditate as if playing, and develop power of flow and leadership!”

Meditation Festival for Youth, 2022 MeMe Festival is a fun and exciting meditation experience that naturally develops the 'power of flow' and nurtures the empathy, resilience, insight and creativity necessary for 'leadership'. Two nights and three days youth camp consisting of lectures and experience programs.

 

Participants: 300 teenagers (ages 13-18) who can communicate in Korean

참가 대상: 한국어 소통 가능한 청소년(만 13세~18세) 300명

 

Read more(Korean)

Contact: [email protected]

 

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F.6 Visa Looking for Teaching work Busan

Mon, 2022-06-20 01:35
Classified Ad Type: Location: Neighborhood: Contact person by email

Hi, all

Looking for teaching Teaching work in Busan

F6 Visa Native speaker

2 years of teaching experience in South Korea

Don't hesitate to contact me for more details.

다정다감한  원어민강사입니다

연락주세요

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KOFIC's Journey at Cannes 2022

Mon, 2022-06-20 00:12
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Paeyopsa-ji Temple Site – 패엽사지 (Sincheon, Hwanghaenam-to, North Korea)

Sun, 2022-06-19 23:38
Paeyopsa Temple [Paeyeopsa Temple] in 1927. (Picture Courtesy of the Buddhist Art of North Korea – Documentation in Gelatin Dry Plates). Temple History

Paeyopsa-ji Temple Site [Paeyeopsa-ji Temple Site] is located in Sinchon [Sincheon], Hwanghaenam-to, North Korea on Mt. Kuwolsan (954 m). And for the rest of this article, it should be noted, that the spelling of North Korean places will use the North Korean style of spelling. As for Mt. Kuwolsan, it gets its name from the ninth month of the lunar calendar, which is when the mountain is considered to be at its most beautiful. The area is especially popular with North Korean travelers during the summer months. Additionally, Mt. Kuwolsan [Mt. Guwolsan] is famous for its relation to Dangun, who was the legendary founder of Korea. According to legend, Dangun entered the mountain in his later years and became a Sanshin (Mountain Spirit) on Mt. Kuwolsan [Mt. Guwolsan].

As for the temple itself, there are two theories as to when it was first constructed. The first theory states that Paeyopsa Temple [Paeyeopsa Temple] was built by the monk Beopsim during the middle of the Silla Dynasty (57 B.C. – 935 A.D.). And the second theory about the founding of the temple states that Paeyopsa Temple [Paeyeopsa Temple] was founded by the monk Gueop-daesa, who was a high ranking monk during the reign of King Aejang of Silla (r. 800-809 A.D.). Initially, the temple was known as Kuopsa Temple [Gueopsa Temple], after the monk that purportedly first established Paeyopsa Temple [Paeyeopsa Temple].

As for the current name of the temple, a “paeyeop” is the short form for “paedarayeop,” which refers to a pattra leaf. Historically, Buddhist scriptures were carved on pattra leaves by pens made of iron or bamboo. An unknown Silla monk returned to the Korean peninsula from the west [China], and he returned with a “paeyeop-gyeong” (a pattra leaf sutra). This monk kept this sutra at the temple, so the temple changed its name to Paeyopsa Temple [Paeyeopsa Temple].

During the early 1400’s, and at the start of the Joseon Dynasty (1392-1910), Paeyopsa Temple [Paeyeopsa Temple] was destroyed by a fire. Later, the temple would be restored. During Japanese Colonization (1910-1945), Paeyopsa Temple [Paeyeopsa Temple] was a headquarter that oversaw the administration of some thirty-four other temples in the area. And up until the Korean War (1950-1953), Paeyopsa Temple [Paeyeopsa Temple] had a handful of temple structures that included the Chilseong-gak Hall, the Cheongpung-ru Pavilion, the Hansanbo-jeon Hall, a budowon, and a five-story stone pagoda. However, outside the historic stone pagoda and the budowon, the rest of the temple grounds were destroyed during the Korean War.

Lastly, Paeyopsa Temple [Paeyeopsa Temple] is North Korean National Treasure #171.

Temple Site Layout

As was previously mentioned, Paeyopsa Temple [Paeyeopsa Temple] was once a sprawling temple with numerous temple shrine halls on its temple grounds. Even as recently as just before the Korean War, there were a handful of temple shrine halls. Now, however, only the stone monuments still exist on the temple site grounds.

As you first approach the temple site, and where there once stood the entry gate, all that remains now are the foundation stones and a large tree. To the left of the collection of foundation stones is the historic five-story stone pagoda. And to the rear of the temple grounds, you’ll find the budowon that houses a collection of stupas to monks that once called Paeyopsa Temple [Paeyeopsa Temple] home.

How To Get There

For now, in today’s political climate, you don’t. But hopefully one day soon we can. Below is a map of where to find Paeyopsa-ji Temple Site [Paeyeopsa-ji Temple Site] in Sinchon [Sincheon], Hwanghaenam-to, North Korea.

Overall Rating: 3/10

Sadly, very little is left at the Paeyopsa-ji Temple Site [Paeyeopsa-ji Temple Site]. And for this reason, with it now only having a collection of stupas and the historic stone pagoda, the temple site rates as low as it does. However, with a little imagination, you can dream of what Paeyopsa Temple [Paeyeopsa Temple] must have once looked like. And hopefully one day soon visitors can explore this historic religious site.

Historical Pictures of Paeyopsa Temple The Paeyopsa Temple [Paeyeopsa Temple] grounds in 1929. (Picture courtesy of the Buddhist Art of North Korea – Documentation in Gelatin Dry Plates). The Hansanbo-jeon Hall. (Picture courtesy of the Buddhist Art of North Korea – Documentation in Gelatin Dry Plates). A closer look around the exterior of the Hansanbo-jeon Hall. (Picture courtesy of the Buddhist Art of North Korea – Documentation in Gelatin Dry Plates). A look at the main altar inside the Hansanbo-jeon Hall. (Picture courtesy of the Buddhist Art of North Korea – Documentation in Gelatin Dry Plates). A look around the Hansanbo-jeon Hall. (Picture courtesy of the Buddhist Art of North Korea – Documentation in Gelatin Dry Plates). The view to the rear of the main hall. (Picture courtesy of the Buddhist Art of North Korea – Documentation in Gelatin Dry Plates). And the historic five-story pagoda at Paeyopsa Temple [Paeyeopsa Temple]. (Picture courtesy of the Buddhist Art of North Korea – Documentation in Gelatin Dry Plates). Paeyeopsa Temple Site Now The Paeyopsa-ji Temple Site [Paeyeopsa-ji Temple Site] grounds now. Off in the distance is the five-story pagoda. (Picture courtesy of Naver). The historic five-story pagoda that still stands on the grounds at the Paeyopsa-ji Temple Site [Paeyeopsa-ji Temple Site]. (Picture courtesy of Naver). And the budwon at the Paeyopsa-ji Temple Site [Paeyeopsa-ji Temple Site]. (Picture courtesy of Naver). —

KoreanTempleGuide.com

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2004 AVANTE XD Deluxe VVT

Sun, 2022-06-19 12:30
Classified Ad Type: Location: Neighborhood: Nangmin dongContact person by email

Within the last year: New trans, new breaks, new radiator, new tires. Passed safety check last month. ₩850,000 or offer

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Does South Korea Need a Aircraft Carrier? Creeping Chinese Control of the South China Sea’s Oil Sea Lane is the Best Argument for It

Sat, 2022-06-18 08:36

There has a been a pretty vibrant debate in South Korea over building an indigenous aircraft carrier. That debate has been especially resonant where I live – Busan – because it would probably be built here.

This post is a re-up of an op-ed I wrote for the Japan Times this week. I also wrote on this once before for a ROK navy-adjacent think-tank.

IMO, the best argument for a ROK carrier is China’s creeping, long-term effort to dominate the South China Sea. Oil from the Persian Gulf traverses the SCS on its way to East Asia’s democracies – Japan, South Korea, Taiwan. Chinese control of the SCS oil sea lane would allow the PLAN to embargo carbon imports for whatever bogus reason Beijing could think of.

We can be sure that Chinese bullying in the region will use this tool as soon as China consolidates control of the SCS and puts up enough bases to launch blockades. Indeed, I have long thought that this is the primary reason China wants to control the SCS so badly. It’s not clear that there are a lot of natural resources in the seabed there or that they can be cost-effectively extracted. And all the little islands and sandbars in the SCS aren’t valuable in themselves.

But this would require SK to start seriously thinking about 1) power projection southward, 2) contesting Chinese sea control inside the first island chain, and 3) cooperating with Japan which is also threatened by this and which has a larger navy. That would all be great but is a big ask for a country not used to thinking about foreign policy much beyond the peninsula. And that is my big concern: that the previous Moon administration really wanted to build this because Japan is building an aircraft carrier, and wants to park it next to Dokdo. That is the wrong reason to build one.

Here is the original, pre-edited version of my essay from the Japan Times:

South Korean has considered, in the last year, constructing a light aircraft carrier. This has provoked controversy. The decision to build it or not has swung back and forth. The South Korean navy very much wants it and has made a public push for it. The South Korean legislature, the National Assembly, ultimately decided to fund it last year. But the government of new President Yoon Seok Yeol is apparently re-considering.

South Korea the Land Power

Most countries in the world lean into either land or sea power, as dictated by their geography. Unsurprisingly, island states develop ‘blue water’ (i.e., ocean-going) navies. Japanese modernization, for example, lead to maritime power in the last century and half. Britain too had a large navy at its peak.

South Korea would appear to fit into this box. It is an island of sorts. It has just one land border, but that is tightly sealed. So strategically, South Korea is nearly an island.

But necessity has made South Korean a land power nonetheless. Its border with North Korea is the most militarized place on the planet. The North Korean army numbers over one million active-duty soldiers, with millions more in reserve. North Korea’s air and naval power are small in comparison. A second Korean war, like the first one, would mostly be fought on the ground.

South Korea’s Widening Horizons

As countries become wealthier, they inevitably have wider-ranging interests. Rising states often have overseas trading relationships, often for particular resources which are unavailable at home. For South Korea, like Japan and many others, that means the import of raw materials, especially petroleum.

Petroleum imports to South Korea (and Japan and Taiwan) come mostly from the Persian Gulf, from exporters like Saudi Arabia. The oil tankers enroute to northeast Asia sail through the India Ocean and the Straits of Malacca, before turning north to pass through the South China Sea toward their destinations.

This is a critical sea lane for northeast Asian democracies, because China has made increasingly aggressive moves in the last decade to consolidate control over the South China Sea. As is now well-known, China claims nearly that entire sea, reaching all the way south to Malaysia and Indonesia.

This exorbitant claim has been found improper by the Permanent Court of Arbitration (in 2016), but China has ignored that ruling. It continues to take control of the various reefs, shoals, and islands in the South China Sea. It is militarizing them with docks, troop facilities, and airstrips.

The US and its allies have responded with ‘freedom of navigation operations’ (FONOPs), but this has not stopped Chinese expansion. A major Chinese militarization of the South China Sea could give it the ability to halt oil shipments to Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan with a naval blockade. That prospect has slowly sucked Japan into the South China Sea, and now it is pulling in South Korea too.

South Korea, traditional land power, must now contemplate projecting power further afield to contest Chinese naval threats to its crucial sea lanes. This is the core of the argument for the carrier, and it is a strong one – one Japan would be wise to consider more fully too.

South Korean/Japanese Cooperation in the South China Sea?

Although the US Navy has been at the forefront of FONOPs, the strategic threat is greatest to Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan. All are deeply dependent on oil for their modern industries and transportation. Relying too much on Chinese goodwill, or on the US willingness to fight for another country’s sea lanes, is obviously risky. The US alliance with South Korea and Japan is primarily about territorial integrity, not a wide-ranging defense of their import traffic. South Korea and Japan would be wise to consider developing some capability to act independently in defense of their own needs. A South Korean aircraft carrier is a first step in that direction for Seoul.

Ideally, this would involve trilateral cooperation. The US has long sought South Korea and Japan to cooperate better on regional issues. In his visit to East Asia last month, American President Joseph Biden once again emphasized trilateralism. Given that Seoul and Tokyo share nearly identical interests in the South China Sea – keeping it open to free commercial navigation – it should not be too hard to find basic ways to cooperate there. There was some minimal, ‘out of area’ South Korea-Japan cooperation a decade ago in the multilateral effort against Somali pirates in the India Ocean.

Interservice Competition: Will the North Korea Threat Derail a Carrier?

The biggest threat to a South Korean carrier is the cost. It will likely cost 2 billion USD to construct and another 50 million USD per year to maintain. And defense industrial costs are almost always too low, so those figures will likely go up.

The National Assembly has already worried that this is too much money. As North Korea continues its nuclearization and missilization, their will be corresponding pressure to build out South Korea’s own missile and missile defense forces. Those too are expensive. One THAAD anti-missile battery (Terminal High Altitude Area Defense) costs more than one billion USD. Ideally, the National Assembly would expand South Korea’s defense budget, but that is politically tough.

So ultimately, this debate will likely devolve into an interservice turf war, as the army and air force claim that local North Korea threats outweigh vague Chinese threats further afield. The North Korean threat school may win this time, but I would be surprised if South Korea (and Japan) did not conclude fairly soon that they need to be able to project air and naval power southward also.


Robert E Kelly
Assistant Professor
Department of Political Science & Diplomacy
Pusan National University

@Robert_E_Kelly

 

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Mini Lego Blocks

Fri, 2022-06-17 14:14
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Korean worksheets – Exercises for your language skills

Fri, 2022-06-17 07:43

In this article, we will provide you with different Korean worksheets that can help you study Korean.

When you are studying a new language, practice really does make you perfect. Thus, you will want to utilize as many resources as possible – especially if you want to make it fun! Besides our membership program, we have so many wonderful and educational articles available in our free blog.

The tips we share can make learning the Korean language as fun and efficient as possible. Using these resources is an efficient way in which you can enhance your Korean language studying. And luckily, we have a couple of them for you to get started on immediately!

Different Korean Worksheets

Below we will introduce you to our compilation of helpful resources and cheat sheets, which you can get started by filling out right at this moment.

These free resources will be especially useful as you learn Korean in terms of beginner-level grammar patterns, common Korean vocabulary, and of course, the Korean alphabet. You can also find resources for practicing reading and writing specifically.

We’ve added their links to each section. If you’d like to have your copy of the worksheet, simply click on the red button for the PDF.

Korean alphabet worksheets for beginners

In this section are resources on the Korean alphabet (Hangul) that are perfect for beginner-level learners. Its worksheets will be especially helpful to those still at the starting stage of learning the Korean alphabet.

Korean Alphabet Worksheet

Our worksheet for the Korean Alphabet is perfect for when you are just getting started on studying Korean and need to get a firm grasp of its alphabet (Hangul).

Korean Alphabet -worksheet

Utilizing this worksheet, you can not only learn the letters but also how each character sounds. Besides total beginners, this worksheet works as a great refreshment if you’re struggling to remember each character or are returning to your Korean studies after a break.

Korean Vowels Worksheet

Learning the full alphabet can be overwhelming for some. This worksheet focuses solely on familiarizing you with the different vowels in the Korean language.

You’ll find a list of the Korean vowels that you can refer to for practicing. As Korean vowels are also categorized into basic and double vowels, this worksheet can help you focus on these lessons.

Korean Vowels -worksheet

Korean Consonants Worksheet

In a similar fashion to the abovementioned vowels worksheet, this one is dedicated to consonants thoroughly.

In this Korean consonants worksheet, you’ll have a list of the Korean consonants alongside the simple activities that will help you practice and remember the letters.

Korean Consonants -worksheet

Korean Vocabulary Worksheets

In this section are resources that will help you build a strong and diverse Korean vocabulary.

This is an excellent worksheet to start familiarizing yourself with common Korean words and vocabulary. Do this first before moving on to other vocabulary worksheets so that you’ll have the best basic skills and understanding.

Korean Words and Basic Vocabulary to Learn First -worksheet

Korean number worksheets

In this section, you can find resources that are focused on Korean numbers. Get acquainted with Korea’s two number systems and counters with these worksheets.

Korean Numbers Worksheet

This worksheet makes knowing all the different Korean numbers and how to count in Korean so easy and convenient.

You’ll get to learn and practice using the Sino-Korean and the Native Korean Numbers System.

Korean Numbers (Step by Step Guide for Counting in Hangul) -worksheet

Korean Counters Worksheet

With the help of this worksheet, you can expand on what you’ve learned about Korean numbers. It’ll make counting anything and everything in Korean super easy.

Having prior knowledge of Korean words for people, objects, date, time, and measurement can help as you would pair these words with their respective counters. There’s a long list of words that are used as Korean counters, and this worksheet can greatly help you to be more familiar with using them.

Korean Counters (Essential Words to Use with Numbers) -worksheet

Korean Grammar Worksheets

In this section, you can find numerous useful resources that will help you understand and utilize Korean grammar. Specifically, this covers Korean verbs, conjunction, conjugation, and particles.

Whether you are a beginner-level learner looking for anything helpful or a more advanced one looking to prep up specific grammar, you’ll find a fitting worksheet in this section.

Korean Grammar Worksheet

This worksheet is perfect for any beginners who want to get an efficient grammar study. This briefly covers the different parts of grammar and how they are used together in sentences.

Korean Grammar for Beginners -worksheet

Korean Verbs Worksheet

This worksheet gets you familiar with all the most common Korean verbs. It’s a must-do if you want to expand your vocabulary as much as possible. Having knowledge about Korean verbs will make learning about Korean adjectives and adverbs a lot easier.

Korean verbs -worksheet

Korean Conjugation Worksheet

If you want to practice conjugating in the Korean language, there’s no better way to do so than with the help of a worksheet like this. Knowing how to conjugate correctly can help you with forming adjectives too.

Korean Conjugation -worksheet

Korean Conjunctions Worksheet

Learning all the different sentence connectors in Korean is a must if you want to be able to speak and write Korean like a pro. This resource is a quick way to master the different basic conjunctions popularly used in the Korean language.

Korean Conjunctions (Basic Sentence Connectors) -worksheet

Korean Particles Worksheet

Another important aspect of Korean grammar is its particles. These serve as markers in the sentence to help the reader identify what a certain word’s role is. There are different types of particles, but the most common ones are the topic, subject, and object particles.

Korean Particles – worksheet

Korean Reading Worksheet

In this section, you can find worksheets that can help you read Korean. This will be mighty useful in practicing your reading skills and speed. You’ll soon be able to read different vocabulary to sentences.

Korean Reading Worksheet

Korean Writing Worksheet

On the other hand, if improving how you write in Hangul is your priority, the free resources below can help you take them to a higher level.

These worksheets below go hand-in-hand in helping you practice writing Korean letters. The Korean writing worksheet contains pages that you can print out and write on for practice. The Hangul stroke order worksheet on the other hand, provides you with a step-by-step guide on how to write each Korean letter.

Korean Writing Worksheet

Hangul Stroke Order

How to Study Korean (Free Resources)

Lastly, you can find free resources on tips for studying the Korean language for free and efficiently under this section.

A Step-by-step guide in learning the Korean language

This resource offers you a quick but educational guide on many different aspects of learning Korean. It includes but is not limited to offering some amazing resources with which you can master Korean.

Following this guide can help you determine the order of studying specific topics.

Learn Korean Online: How-To Guide for Language Study)

Tips on how to learn Korean fast

To build on the other resources, with the aid of this one, you can masterfully quicken the pace with which you can learn Korean.

It’s a really handy guide to have as you learn a language. You can think of it as a marathon rather than a sprint, where you also don’t want to waste your time if there are faster ways to learn.

18 Fantastic Tips to Learn Korean Fast

With these lessons and resources, you have now been equipped with some amazing resources you can use to learn and practice Korean with. How many of our worksheets have you already finished? What kind of resources would you like to see more?

Are worksheets the preferred way of studying for you? Let us know what you think of these resources and learn from them by leaving a comment below! If this isn’t quite enough for you to learn from today, do sign up for our membership program or check out more articles on the blog.

The post Korean worksheets – Exercises for your language skills appeared first on 90 Day Korean®.

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Master Politeness Levels with Billy Go | #11: Honorific Particles

Thu, 2022-06-16 13:27

Let's look at some honorific particles, which are used together with honorific speech when talking about other people.

This series has 24 episodes, and I'm uploading one new episode every week.

If you'd like to see all 24 episodes right now, you can join my YouTube channel and become a Member - this will give you access to all of them in advance.

The post Master Politeness Levels with Billy Go | #11: Honorific Particles appeared first on Learn Korean with GO! Billy Korean.

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Mangdeoksa-ji Temple Site – 망덕사지 (Gyeongju)

Wed, 2022-06-15 23:23
The Elevated Foundation for the Western Pagoda at the Mangdeoksa-ji Temple Site. Temple Site History

Mangdeoksa-ji Temple Site is located in and among the rice fields of Gyeongju just south of Mt. Nangsan (99.5 m) and Sacheonwangsa-ji Temple Site. Mangdeoksa Temple means “Aspiring Virtue Temple” in English. There is some debate as to when the temple was completed, but the Flagpole Supports at Mangdeoksa-ji Temple Site were erected in 685 A.D. And even if this date isn’t believed, it’s assumed by most historians that the temple was built either during the reign of King Sinmun of Silla (r. 681-692 A.D.) or King Munmu of Silla (r. 661-681 A.D.).

The Mangdeoksa-ji Temple Site has an interesting connection to the neighbouring the Sacheonwangsa-ji Temple Site, which was completed in 679 A.D. According to the Samguk Yusa (Memorabilia of the Three Kingdoms), for which Mangdeoksa-ji Temple Site appears numerous times, the neighbouring Sacheonwangsa Temple was built to protect the Silla Kingdom (57 B.C. – 935 A.D.) from the mighty Tang Dynasty (618–690, 705–907 A.D.) armies of China. After defeating both the Baekje Kingdom (18 B.C. – 660 A.D.) and the Goguryeo Kingdom (37 B.C. – 668 A.D.) together, the Tang Dynasty turned its gaze towards the Silla Kingdom after the Korean peninsula had been unified. With the building of Sacheonwangsa Temple as a nation defending temple, as other early Buddhist temples in Gyeongju were built for like Gameunsa Temple, Silla miraculously defeated the Tang Dynasty forces, both 500,000 and 50,000 troops successively, after their fleets were drowned in storms. After hearing contradictory news, the Tang Emperor sent an envoy to confirm whether Sacheonwangsa Temple was built either to defend Silla or praise the Tang Emperor like Silla claimed. Before the Tang envoy could arrive in Silla, King Sinmun of Silla ordered the construction of Mangdeoksa Temple.

An image of what the twin pagodas at Mangdeoksa Temple might have looked like. (Picture courtesy of Naver).

Mangdeoksa Temple was home to a very unique pair of twin wooden pagodas that were thirteen stories in height. The pagodas at Mangdeoksa Temple were thought to have mysterious powers attached to them that would allow them to prophesize the political turmoil found between Silla and Tang at this time as made evident by the myths found in the Samguk Yusa.

Additionally, and the reason for the original construction of Mangdeoksa Temple, Sacheonwangsa Temple was believed to be a consecrated site that helped protect Silla from Tang. That’s why Silla didn’t want to reveal this Buddhist temple to Tang. Perhaps Silla thought it would weaken the temple’s ability to defend the nation, and that’s why the king decided to have Mangdeoksa Temple built. Mangdeoksa Temple was built to hide the original temple; and thus, Mangdeoksa Temple acted as its double.

But why twin pagodas in the first place? Well, there are a couple theories as to why there are twin pagodas at Korean Buddhist temples. Originally, Korean Buddhist temples only had one pagoda like at Hwangnyongsa Temple. This changed with the creation of the twin wooden pagodas at Sacheonwangsa Temple that were followed by the stone pagodas at Gameunsa Temple and the wooden pair at Mangdeoksa Temple. The first reason given is the motif of representing the Twin Buddhas of Dabo-bul (Many Treasures Buddha) and Seokgamoni-bul (The Historical Buddha). Textually, this appears in the Lotus Sutra in the “Chapter of Seeing the Treasury Pagoda,” where Dabo-bul appears at Seokgamoni-bul’s sermon. Dabo-bul invites Seokgamoni-bul inside the pagoda. And another theory is that twin pagodas would no longer block the view towards a temple’s main hall; but instead, it would frame the main hall. In this case, one theory is just as plausible as the other. And the most successful incarnation of the twin pagodas that still exists with us to the present day can be found at Bulguksa Temple in Gyeongju.

As for Mangdeoksa Temple, the twin wooden pagodas at Mangdeoksa Temple were believed to have a certain exotic quality to them. Perhaps this was to appease the Tang envoy that would visit the temple. With that being said, it probably wouldn’t have been all that hard for the Tang envoy to realize that the multi-leveled Chinese miyan-style pagoda at Mangdeoksa Temple weren’t Silla in design both in their construction and in the odd height of its thirteen stories. It’s no wonder that the Tang envoy was easily able to realize that Mangdeoksa Temple wasn’t in fact the Sacheonwangsa Temple he had been instructed to visit. But with a bribe of some one thousand strings of gold, at least according to the Samguk Yusa, the Tang envoy was willing to lie to the Tang emperor upon his return to China.

Alongside Hwangnyongsa Temple and Sacheonwangsa Temple, Mangdeoksa Temple was one of the three most important temples in Gyeongju. And it’s believed that Mangdeoksa Temple survived until the early Goryeo Dynasty (918-1392).

There has been numerous archaeological work conducted on the temple site including from 1969 to 1971 by the Korean Cultural Heritage Administration. Another dig took place in 2013, and it was at this time that the lecture hall site was discovered.

The Mangdeoksa-ji Temple Site is Historic Site #7. It’s also home to one Korean Treasure, the aforementioned Flagpole Supports at Mangdeoksa Temple Site. The flag supports are Korean Treasure #69.

Temple Site Myths

Rather interestingly, the Mangdeoksa-ji Temple Site is one of the most frequently written about temples in the Samguk Yusa (Memorabilia of the Three Kingdoms). One of these stories is related to the very idea of why Mangdeoksa Temple was built in 679 A.D. in the first place. Here’s that story:

“When Baekje and Goguryeo had been disposed of, the victorious Tang armies turned against Silla. King Munmu therefore ordered his troops out to fight them. The Tang Emperor Gaozong (r. 649-683 A.D.) complained to the Silla envoy Kim In-mun [King Munmu’s brother], saying ‘You employed our Celestial Army as your ally in conquering Baekje and Goguryeo and now you fight it as an enemy!’ He threw Kim In-mun into prison and commanded Hsueh Pang to train 500,000 men to attack Silla.

Uisang, a famous Silla monk who was studying in China at the time, learned of the Emperor’s intentions from Kim In-mun and reported them to King Munmu on his return from Changan. The King summoned Myeongnang-beopsa, a mysterious monk who studied miraculous methods of warfare in the Dragon Palace, and asked him what should be done. The monk advised the King to erect Sacheonwangsa in the Forest of the Gods south of Wolf Mountain, and to set up a military training ground within its precincts.

“But just at this time news arrived from the western coast near Cheongju that a great host of Tang vessels with troops on board was approaching. The King again consulted Myeongnang-beopsa and told him about the imminent danger of enemy attack. Myeongnang advised him to decorate the temple with silk brocade. The King did so, and in addition had an image of the five-faced god made of grass and ordered twelve monks, headed by Myeongnang, to call upon the spirits of heaven and of the sea. Soon a mighty typhoon arose, and the angry waves swallowed the Chinese vessels before the troops on board could get ashore.

“The following year the exasperated Tang Emperor sent out fifty thousand men under the command of Chao Hsien on a second expedition against Silla, but the fleet that was transporting them went to the bottom just as the previous one had because of the magic art of the Silla monk.

“The Emperor was astonished. He summoned Pak Mun-jun, a Silla nobleman who had been interned in the same prison as Kim In-mun, and asked ‘What magic art do you have in Silla? Why did two great expeditions perish before they reached its shore?’

“Pak replied, ‘The Prince and I have been away from Silla these ten years and we know little of what is happening at home, but we have heard that the King of Silla has erected a temple of the Heavenly Kings [Sacheonwangsa Temple] on Mt. Nangsan to pray for the long life of the Tang Emperor in gratitude for his having sent great hosts to fight for Silla in the war to unify the Three Kingdoms.’

“The Emperor was greatly pleased and sent Lo Peng-kuei, a high official in the Ministry of Education and External Affairs, to Silla to inspect this mysterious temple. Hearing of his approach, the King of Silla thought it not prudent to reveal the actual temple and so had another constructed to the south of it, and waited.

“When the Tang envoy arrived and wanted to burn incense at Sacheonwangsa Temple, he was conducted to the false temple. But he stopped at the gate and turned back, saying, ‘This is not Sacheongwangsa Temple but a temple of Mangdeokyosan.’ (The temple was called Mangdeoksa Temple ever afterwards).

“The Silla courtiers gave the envoy a luxurious banquet served by a galaxy of beautiful women and presented him with a thousand ‘yang’ of gold (a very large sum). When he returned to Changan, he reported to the Emperor that the people of Silla prayed for his long life in a new temple just as they worshipped in Sacheonwangsa Temple.”

Another story from the Samguk Yusa relates to King Hyoso of Silla (r. 692-702 A.D.), when the king was conducting a ceremony for the opening of Mangdeoksa Temple. Here is that story:

“A festival was held at Mangdeoksa Temple on its completion, and the King attended the ceremony in person. There he saw an unmarried monk, dressed in rags and bent with age, standing in the courtyard. ‘Your Majesty,’ the monk said, ‘allow this poor monk to participate in the ceremony.’

“‘With great pleasure,’ the King replied. ‘Please take a seat and worship the great Buddha on this happy day.’

“When the ceremony was over the King said jokingly, ‘My good monk, where do you live?’

“‘I live under Bipaam Rock (Harper’s Rock),’ he replied.

“‘When you go home,’ the King said, ‘do not tell anybody that you offered sacrifices to the great Buddha in the company of the King.’

“‘My good King,’ laughed the monk, ‘please tell nobody that you offered sacrifices to the incarnation of Buddha.’ And he rose into the air and flew away toward the south.

“In great surprise and shame the King bowed in that direction and sent courtiers to find the flying monk. After a time they returned and reported that they had found the monk’s bronze staff and wooden bowl on a rock in Samseong-go, (Three Star Valley) near Mt. Namsan, but the monk was nowhere to be found.

“The King had a Buddhist temple called Seokkasa Temple (Shakyamuni Temple) built beneath Bipaam Rock, and another called Bulmusa Temple (No Buddha Temple) on the spot where the monk disappeared, with his staff and bowl preserved in it.”

A computer model of what the twin pagodas at Mangdeoksa Temple might have looked like. (Picture courtesy of Naver).

In yet another story from the Samguk Yusa, the twin wooden pagodas at Mangdeoksa Temple shook in 755 A.D. to warn Silla of the An Lushan Rebellion (755-763 A.D.). Here is that story from the Samguk Yusa:

“In the fourteenth year of King Gyeongdeok of Silla [755 A.D.] the pagoda in the courtyard of Mangdeoksa Temple was shaken from top to bottom. This was the same year that An Lu-shan made an alliance of love with Yang Kuei-fei and led a rebellion, with an attempt upon the life and throne of Tang Ming-wang (Hsuan-tsung). The people of Silla denounced the adulation of the Tang rulers by the royal family, asserting that it was natural that the pagoda was shaken to its foundation, since the temple had been built in flattery of the decadent Tang royalty.”

And yet another story from the Samguk Yusa relates to the area surrounding the Mangdeoksa-ji Temple Site and its connection to loyalty and a wife’s love for her husband. The area around the Mangdeoksa-ji Temple Site is known as Beoljiji, which is more commonly known as Yangjibeodeul, and the sandy field nearby is Jangsa. Both areas have a sad story related to them.

Silla was facing a crisis from the time of King Naemul of Silla (r. 356-402 A.D.) to King Nulji of Silla (r. 417-458 A.D.). The Goguryeo kings, King Gwanggaeto the Great (r. 391-413 A.D.) and King Jangsu of Goguryeo (r. 413-491 A.D.), were expanding their territories and enforcing southern expansion. But Silla, at least at this time, was less powerful than its northern neighbour. Also, Japan was constantly attacking Silla. As a bit of a reprieve, Silla sent political prisoners to both Goguryeo and Japan to suspend hostilities. These prisoners were the two princes of King Naemul of Silla (r. 356-402 A.D.): Prince Bohae and Prince Mihae.

Time passed and King Nulji of Silla (r. 417-458 A.D.) ascended the throne. The king really wanted to reunite with his younger brothers. So Bak Je-sang went out to Goguryeo and rescued Prince Bohae. He then needed to travel to Japan to rescue Prince Mihae. Before returning to Silla, Bak Je-sang directly went from Goguryeo to Japan. When his wife heard about this, she chased after him in order to be able to see her husband after such a long period of time. However, she was unable to see him. The wife fell into a deep depression and laid down on the sand to the south of the gates of Mangdeoksa Temple weeping. This is how the sandy field near Mandeoksa Temple came to be known as Jangsa.

Two of the wife’s relatives tried to help her up, but she was in such despair, and with her legs outstretched and unable to move, they couldn’t get her up. And that’s how the area also came to be known as Beoljiji. In Chinese characters, the word “stretch” is “beoljiji.”

And finally, and from the Samguk Yusa, once more, is a story about a monk named Seonyul who died from all his hard work while copying out the Heart Sutra, or Banya Shimgyeong – 반야심경 in Korean. Here is that story:

“Seonyul, a good monk of Mangdeoksa Temple, used the donation he received from local people to pay for the copying of the six hundred volumes of the Buddhsit scripture called Banya-gyeong. But before he could finish the work the messenger of death came and took him to the Yellow Spring (the world of the dead).

“The sorrowful monk stood before the King of Hell in the Hall of Judgment. Before him were a mirror and scale, which reflected and weighed the sins of the dead. On the basis of their evidence, the court decided whether to send the soul to hell, purgatory, or heaven.

“The King looked into the mirror and then at the monk’s face and asked, ‘What was your occupation during life in human society?’

“‘I was a monk,’ Seonyul answered. ‘I began copying the six hundred volumes of Buddhist scripture, but before I could complete it I was brought to Your Majesty’s dark palace.’

“‘Hum!’ said the King. ‘You are a good monk and have sinned against nobody. According to my records your life is now over and your soul must say farewell to your flesh. But since your long-cherished noble work has not been finished, I shall give you a special pardon, and allow you to return to life until all of the sacred volumes are compiled and copied. You may go.’

“During his journey back to the land of the living, Seonyul encountered the soul of a woman, who, bowing to him and weeping, said, ‘I was a native of Silla in Namyeomju. Because my parents stole part of a rice field belonging to Geumgangsa Temple, I entered this dark world and have been subjected to unspeakable torment. When you return to life, please tell my father and mother to return the land immediately. During my lifetime I hid a bottle of sesame oil under my toilet box and a roll of hand-spun silk between the folds of my quilt. If you burn the oil in the temple lantern and sell the silk to pay for your copying expenses, I will be freed from the torments of the Yellow Spring by your grace.’

“‘Where was your home on earth?’ Seonyul asked.

“‘You will find it southwest of Guwonsa Temple in Saryang-bu,’ she replied.

“Seonyul came to life again after he had been buried at the foot of Mt. Namsan for ten days. He called loudly from his grave for three days, and at last a cowherd heard him and ran to the temple to tell the strange news. Soon a group of sturdy monks arrived, dug into the grave, and released the resurrected monk from the grassy mound. Breathing a sigh, Seonyul related to them his adventures in the world of the dead.

“He visited the home of the woman whom he had met on the banks of the Yellow Spring, as she had requested. She had been dead for fifteen years, but the sesame oil and the silk were still there, and as fresh as new. Seonyul prayed to Buddha for her soul, and one night she came to him in a dream and said, ‘Thanks to your grace, my soul is now at peace.’

“All the people admired the great virtue of the resurrected monk and assisted him in copying the treasured volumes, until the find series was completed. They are now kept in the archives of the monks of Gyeongju, and twice a year, in the spring and autumn, the ancient pages are spread in the sun to banish devils and catastrophes.”

Temple Site Layout

Sadly, there is very little left at the Mangdeoksa-ji Temple Site. You’ll first approach the temple site through fields of rice. The temple site is like an elevated island among a sea of rice fields. Having approached from the south, you’ll notice a wooden plank that spans the length of a narrow stream. Past some bramble bushes and up a steep incline, you’ll finally spot the Flagpole Supports at Mangdeoksa Temple Site. These flagpole supports stand a few metres in height and 65 cm apart. The flagpole supports are unadorned, but they do have rounded edges in the upper portion of the supports. There are rectangular holes in the supports to affix a flag to them during special Buddhist ceremonies. And according to the Samguk Yusa, they were erected in 685 A.D. to commemoration the completion of Mangdeoksa Temple.

Passing by this flag support, and making your way through a cluster of trees, you’ll first come across the elevated foundation for the western pagoda. Someone has left behind a statue of Seokgamoni-bul (The Historical Buddha) leaning up against a tree that now grows through the centre of the elevated foundation for the western pagoda.

A map of the Mangdeoksa-ji Temple Site. (Picture courtesy of Naver).

Passing by this, you’ll come to a clearing; and if you look directly across this field, you’ll notice another squarish piece of land that’s elevated, as well. This is the elevated foundation for the eastern pagoda. To the left of these elevated foundations, you’ll notice a collection of square stones in two lines. These are the foundations stones for the main hall, the Geumdang Hall, that once stood at Mangdeoksa Temple. And just to the rear of this, and recently discovered, is the now overgrown lecture hall site.

To the right of this collection of historical stones, and past the elevated foundations for the twin pagodas, you’ll find the remains of a stairway to the south of the Jungmun (Middle Gate). These are the faint remains of the elevated portions of earth that once supported enclosed galleries that surrounded Mangdeoksa Temple. While now largely overgrown, if you close your eyes and imagine, you can still see the faint glimpse of what the Mangdeoksa-ji Temple Site must have once been during the height of the Silla Dynasty.

How To Get There

From the Gyeongju Train Station, you’ll be able to get to the Mangdeoksa-ji Temple Site. There’s a bus station called the “Gyeongju St., Post Office Stop – 경주역, 우체국 정류장” from out in front of the train station. You can take any number of buses to get to the Mangdeoksa-ji Temple Site like Bus #11, #153, #601, #602, #603, #604, #605, #607, and #609. After seven stops, you’ll need to get off at the “Namsan Ipgu Stop.” From this stop, you’ll need to walk three minutes, or two hundred metres, towards the Sacheonwangsa-ji Temple Site. But instead of heading towards the Sacheonwangsa-ji Temple Site, you’ll need to hang a right at the intersection and head down “Tongil-ro – 통일로.” Follow this road about 300 metres. But before crossing Hwarang-gyo Bridge, you’ll see a road to your left. Follow this road for about 150 metres. You’ll have to walk at the side of the fields, but you’ll finally be able to see the support poles at the Mangdeoksa-ji Temple Site as a guide.

Overall Rating: 2/10

Unfortunately, there’s very little left at the Mangdeoksa-ji Temple Site outside of myths and a few pieces of elevated earth and foundation stones. While almost always overlooked, if you’re into temple sites, then the neighbouring Sacheonwangsa-ji Temple and Mangdeoksa-ji Temple Site can make for a nice little adventure in southern Gyeongju. And with a little imagination, perhaps you can see the faint outlines of a once majestic temple.

The view towards the island of trees where the Mangdeoksa-ji Temple Site is located. The pathway through the rice fields towards the temple site. The Flagpole Supports at Mangdeoksa Temple Site at the entry to the temple site. The pathway that leads you towards the temple site clearing. The elevated foundation for the western pagoda at the Mangdeoksa-ji Temple Site. The foundation stones to the main hall at the Mangdeoksa-ji Temple Site with the elevated foundation for the eastern pagoda to the top right. A look to the south and the foundation stones to the Jungmun Gate (Middle Gate). And a closer look at the Jungmun Gate stones. —

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