Unbuam Hermitage is one of several hermitages located on the sprawling Eunhaesa Temple grounds in Yeongcheon, Gyeongsangbuk-do. According to a hermitage legend, Unbuam Hermitage was first founded in 711 A.D. by the famed monk Uisang-daesa (625-702 A.D.). However, there are two reasons to question this legend. First, Uisang-daesa died in 702 A.D.; and secondly, Eunhaesa Temple wasn’t constructed until 809 A.D. As for the name of the hermitage, it was called Unbuam Hermitage because the monk Seoun was floating above the location of the future hermitage. After the hermitage’s founding, very little is known about its history. However, we do know that the hermitage was destroyed by fire in 1860. Unbuam Hermitage was later rebuilt, at least in part, in 1900.
Unbuam Hermitage is home to one Korean Treasure. It’s the Gilt-Bronze Seated Bodhisattva at Unbuam Hermitage of Eunhaesa Temple, which is Korean Treasure #514.Hermitage Layout
When you first arrive at the hermitage grounds, you’ll notice two large artificial ponds situated out in front of the main hermitage grounds. While the one to the right is rather non-descript, the pond to the left has a large, stone statue of the Bodhidharma standing in the centre of the artificial pond.
Between both of the ponds, you’ll find an unpainted Iljumun Gate. Up a set of uneven stone stairs, you’ll see the large Bohwa-ru Pavilion in front of you. The Bohwa-ru Pavilion dates back to 1900. This gate helps shield people from seeing directly into the hermitage grounds. You’ll need to pass under the Bohwa-ru Pavilion, and up a set of stairs, to finally be standing in the centre of the hermitage’s main courtyard.
Right away, you’ll notice that the main hall is book-ended on either side by two longer buildings. The building to the left is the administrative office and kitchen, while the long unpainted building to your right is the Yosachae (monks’ dorms). And standing all alone in the middle of the hermitage courtyard is an older diminutive three-story stone pagoda.
Past the smaller sized pagoda, you’ll see the rather stout Wontong-jeon Hall straight ahead of you. The exterior walls to the main hall are adorned with fading murals. If you look closely enough up at the eaves, you’ll notice some of the fading floral patterns that were once a bit more vibrant. As for the Wontong-jeon Hall, and stepping inside the main hall, you’ll find a solitary statue resting inside a glass enclosure. This is a statue of Gwanseeum-bosal (The Bodhisattva of Compassion), and this statue is officially known as the Gilt-Bronze Seated Bodhisattva at Unbuam Hermitage of Eunhaesa Temple. The statue of Gwanseeum-bosal stands 1.02 metres in height, and it wears a wonderfully ornate crown with a flame pattern, flowers, and birds of paradise adorning it. The statue has an oval face with slight eyes. Based upon the style of the statue, it’s believed to date back to the early Joseon Dynasty (1392-1910), while still retaining some of the local characteristics of statues like this from the late Goryeo Dynasty (918-1392) in Gyeongsangbuk-do. This statue is Korean Treasure #514. As for the rest of the interior of the Wontong-jeon Hall, you’ll find a Shinjung Taenghwa (Guardian Mural) and Jijang-bosal (The Bodhisattva of the Afterlife) mural hanging on the far right wall.
To the left rear of the Wontong-jeon Hall, you’ll find a brand new Samseong-gak Hall. This shaman shrine hall, which will become apparent soon, is highly original in a few ways. First, there are three rooms housed inside the Samseong-gak Hall. But instead of being divided into rooms dedicate to various shaman deities, this shaman shrine hall has rooms to the left and right of the central hall which allows people to pray all alone. As for the central room inside the Samseong-gak Hall, you’ll find three paintings housed inside it. Typically, the Chilseong (The Seven Stars) painting hangs in the centre of the triad; but inside this hall, you’ll find the Chilseong painting hanging on the left wall, while the painting dedicated to Dokseong (The Lonely Saint) hangs on the right wall. And taking centre stage inside the Samseong-gak Hall is one of the most original modern paintings dedicated to Sanshin (The Mountain Spirit) in Korea. Sitting front and centre in the mural is a seated image of Sanshin. And he’s joined by a tiger in the painting, but there’s more. Also taking up residence in the painting, and starting in the back row, appears an image of Uisang-daesa (625-702 A.D.) to the left of Wonhyo-daesa (617-686 A.D.). As for the front row, and in the centre, appears an image of Gyeongheo-seonsa (1849-1912). And he’s joined on either side by Seongcheol-seonsa (1912-1993) and Jinje-seonsa (1934).
To the rear of the Wontong-jeon Hall, and to the right and past the vegetable garden at Unbuam Hermitage, you’ll find what looks to be an abandoned building over a bit of a ridge. Without a signboard indicating what it might be, you’ll find a beautiful modern painting of a more traditional image of Sanshin and his tiger.How To Get There
To get to Unbuam Hermitage, you’ll first need to get to Eunhaesa Temple, which is where the hermitage is located. You can catch a bus to Eunhaesa Temple from the Yeongcheon Intercity Bus Terminal. These buses leave the terminal eight times a day. The bus ride will take about 45 minutes. From Eunhaesa Temple, you’ll need to continue to walk west of the temple, and to the north, towards Unbuam Hermitage. The walk takes about 4 km, or around 1 hour and fifteen minutes.Overall Rating: 5.5/10
Unbuam Hermitage is packed with originality. And front and centre is the modern Sanshin painting housed inside the Samseong-gak Hall. It’s unclear what the intentions of the artist was, but Sanshin is joined by five of the most prominent luminaries in Korean Buddhism. Adding to this painting is the Bodhidharma statue in the entry pond, the splendid Bohwa-ru Pavilion at the entry of the hermitage courtyard, and the ornately crowned Gilt-Bronze Seated Bodhisattva at Unbuam Hermitage of Eunhaesa Temple inside the Wontong-jeon Hall. In a way, the hermitages at Eunhaesa Temple are more special than the main temple itself.The beautiful grounds at Unbuam Hermitage. The Bodhidharma stone statue and pond out in front of the hermitage courtyard. The entry gate leading up to the main hermitage courtyard. The stairs leading up to the Bohwa-ru Pavilion. The Bohwa-ru Pavilion and a pair of cherry blossom trees in bloom. A look up at the Wontong-jeon Hall from the Bohwa-ruy Pavilion. The view from the Bohwa-ru Pavilion. A monk’s dorm at Unbuam Hermitage. A closer look at the Wontong-jeon Hall. The Gilt-Bronze Seated Bodhisattva at Unbuam Hermitage of Eunhaesa Temple. A look at the hermitage courtyard from the Wontong-jeon Hall. A look up at the modern Samseong-gak Hall. A look inside the central hall of the Samseong-gak Hall. A closer look at the modern Sanshin mural inside the Samseong-gak Hall. The hidden Sanshin-gak Hall to the right rear of the Wontong-jeon Hall. And the modern Sanshin painting in residence inside the Sanshin-gak Hall.—
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Price: ₩120,000 negotiable. Used My Puri model AP-1740W. Still works great, only needs 2AA batteries and connects directly to your water line. Can use on countertop or easy install to your kitchen sink line and keep it in your sink cabinet with teflon tape (I have some spare you can have).
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A baby kitten needs a home. It has lost its mom and needs a home. It has been taken to a vet, was treated, and is in good health. Please be its new mom or dad....
A baby kitten needs a home. It has lost its mom and needs a home. It has been taken to a vet, was treated, and is in good health. Please be its new mom or dad....
I'm looking for someone who would like to exchange (trade?) books with me. Someone who loves to read but knows it to be a costly hobby when searching for English editions -.- Or who, amidst decluttering, discovered some paperbacks that they've already finished but feel hesitant to bid farewell to.
All books are in a very good condition. Subject-wise, I'd like to move away from political economy or history and dive into something in the line of my most recent reads:
- Ocean Vuong, On Earth We're Briefly Gorgeous
- Isaac Asimov, Foundation (the OG trilogy)
- Won-pyung Sohn, Almond
- Haruki Murakami, First Person Singular
(If I were to go as far as to have a wish-list, then it'll include:
- H.Murakami, Absolutely on Music
- Linda Sue Park, When My Name Was Keoko
- Ocean Vuong's poetry book(s)
This is by no means a pre-condition for the exchange! I just wanted to give an approximate idea of what genre of pre-loved books I am looking for.
p.s.: sorry for a long post *inserts pics of a potato*20230525_141814.jpg 20230525_141331.jpg 20230525_141530.jpg 20230525_141602.jpg 20230525_141738.jpg
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The Four Lion Three-Story Stone Pagoda in Gwaeseok-ri is currently located out in front of the county office in Hongcheon, Gangwon-do. The pagoda was moved to this new location in 1969. Formerly, it was housed at a temple site in Gwaeseok-ri, Duchon-myeon, Gangwon-do. However, the former temple site is now used as a farmer’s field. In addition to the Four Lion Three-Story Stone Pagoda in Gwaeseok-ri, the temple site had a few roof tile shards strewn throughout its grounds.
The Four Lion Three-Story Stone Pagoda in Gwaeseok-ri was declared Korean Treasure #540 in July, 1971.Pagoda Design
The Four Lion Three-Story Stone Pagoda in Gwaeseok-ri is located to the south of the county office and the neighbouring Three-Story Stone Pagoda in Huimang-ri, which is Korean Treasure #79. The Four Lion Three-Story Stone Pagoda in Gwaeseok-ri has three stories, which is mounted on a two-tier base that consists of four seated stone lions. In total, the pagoda stands 3.5 metres in height. The pagoda’s design is reminiscent of the Four Lion Three-Story Stone Pagoda of Hwaeomsa Temple, but it’s less refined and smaller in size.
The Four Lion Three-Story Stone Pagoda in Gwaeseok-ri has four sides to its base that are sculpted with floral designs. Each of the four stone lions occupies one of the four corners of the pagoda. Collectively, these stone lions support a wide stone slab above their heads. A lotus pedestal is visible on the stone slab above the four lions. And in the middle of the stone slab on which they are seated, a Buddha image used to appear, but it’s now missing. Interestingly, the tails of the lions are shaped like hearts. The roof stones are separated from the rest of the pagoda, and it has a three-tier edged base. The roof stones are rather plain and thin. And the four tips of the roof are slightly turned upwards at the end. There are holes at the end where wind chimes used to hang. The finial is missing from the pagoda with only the dew basin still remaining. In addition to most of the missing finial, parts of the second and third story stones have broken away, but the pagoda still retains its overall original appearance. As a whole, and based upon its design, it’s strongly believed that the Four Lion Three-Story Stone Pagoda in Gwaeseok-ri dates back to the mid-Goryeo Dynasty (918-1392); however, its overall design is heavily influenced by Unified Silla (668-935 A.D.).How To Get There
From the Hongcheon Intercity Bus Terminal, you can simply walk to get to the Four Lion Three-Story Stone Pagoda in Gwaeseok-ri. You can head east from the bus terminal along Hongcheon-ro Street and past the rotary. Head east along this street for about 800 metres until you come to Majigi-ro Street. Head north along this street for about 600 metres. Head east, once more, along Hwaemang-ro Street for an additional 150 metres. To the north, and as you walk, you’ll see the county office for Hongcheon. The Four Lion Three-Story Stone Pagoda in Gwaeseok-ri is to the south of this county office and to the west of its parking lot. In total, the hike is about 1.3 km, or 20 minutes in duration.
If walking isn’t your thing, or it’s already been a long day, a taxi ride from the Hongcheon Intercity Bus Terminal to Four Lion Three-Story Stone Pagoda in Gwaeseok-ri is about a 5 minute ride that will cost you 4,000 won.Overall Rating: 3/10
On its own, the The Four Lion Three-Story Stone Pagoda in Gwaeseok-ri is a beautiful example of the lion-based design found in the design of some of Korea’s most famous pagodas. While slightly damaged, the pagoda retains its overall beautiful aesthetic. In addition to this beautiful Korean Treasure, you can find yet another Korean Treasure, the Three-Story Stone Pagoda in Huimang-ri, in front of the county office at Hongcheon. And paired together, the two pagodas can make for a nice little trip to the centre of Hongcheon, Gangwon-do to visit one of the lesser known lion-based pagodas in Korea.The Four Lion Three-Story Stone Pagoda in Gwaeseok-ri. A closer look at the base of the pagoda. And an even closer look at one of the four lions that comprise the base of the pagoda. The pagoda from a different angle with damage evident to the top two stories of the stone structure. The four lions from a different angle. And the body of the pagoda up-close. Some of the other artifacts nearby the Four Lion Three-Story Stone Pagoda in Gwaeseok-ri. And the Four Lion Three-Story Stone Pagoda in Gwaeseok-ri and the Three-Story Stone Pagoda in Huimang-ri both out in front of the county office in Hongcheon.—
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In general, there were numerous reasons as to why the Japanese were so focused on archaeology throughout the Korean Peninsula. One of the reasons was to portray the Korean colony as inferior to Japan and in need of civilizing. Another reason was to justify the annexation of Korea through tourism and conservation that had previously been overlooked by the Joseon Dynasty (1392-1910). And the subsequent revenue would help the Japanese war effort in China. Finally, the other link that the Japanese attempted to form through these archaeological endeavors was to form a bond that united the two people through a form of pan-Asian Buddhism to help combat Western and Christian influences.
More specifically, the reason for these restorative acts on Korean Buddhist artifacts and sites were in line with the Japanese thought that “Buddhism was the core of the Eastern Spirit,” which was an idea pursued by the Japanese since the Meiji era (Jan 25, 1868 – Jul 30, 1912). Additionally, it was the cultural assets of Korea that the Japanese placed the greatest value upon, which were created before the Joseon Dynasty. The reason for this is that the Japanese were attempting to evoke in the minds of Koreans the memory of cultural achievements founded during the “Buddhist era” that predated the Joseon Dynasty. Japan needed to point to a pre-modern era that predated the “ruin” of Korea. This “ruin” had been brought on by the rulers of Joseon that were anti-Buddhist. According to the Japanese, the glory of Korea lay in its distant past that had flourished when Buddhism was at the very heart of its society and its successes. So it made sense to attack Joseon rule, while elevating what came before it. It fed into the narrative that Japan had to promote Buddhism which linked the two people together, supported tourism, and combated Western-influence.
These repairs and restorative efforts were then carried out on artifacts across various regions in Korea. However, among these efforts, most of this work was concentrated on Silla Buddhist artifacts and sites in the former Silla capital of Gyeongju.The Daeung-jeon Hall at Bulguksa Temple in 1909. (Picture courtesy of the National Museum of Korea). Bulguksa Temple
In Gyeongju, Japanese authorities paid particular attention to two sites: Bulguksa Temple and Seokguram Hermitage. In restoring Bulguksa Temple, and for almost all sites in Gyeongju, the Japanese authorities didn’t consult the original floor plans or diagrams. There are a couple reasons for this. The first is that most historic sites had fallen into disrepair through neglect and the original floor plans simply didn’t exist. And the second is that the Japanese didn’t consult Koreans; instead, the Japanese used their own judgment and ultimate authority in reconstructing temples like Bulguksa Temple.
Bulguksa Temple, when the Japanese took control over the Korean Peninsula, had fallen into disrepair for decades. The temple had come to be badly neglected and partially looted. With all this in mind, and with the Japanese attempting to pursue their previously mentioned archaeological goals, Japanese authorities attempted to put Bulguksa Temple back together again. There are examples where the Japanese seem to have made mistakes with the overall layout of the temple grounds. For example, the Beomyeong-ru Pavilion (Floating Reflection Pavilion) and the Jwagyeong-ru Pavilion (Sutra Pavilion) don’t appear in the photographs or temple floor plans prepared by the “Oriental Society” (Toyo kyokai 東洋協會) in 1909, when Bulguksa Temple was originally surveyed by the Japanese.
Another major difference we see today is that the entire lower courtyard that includes the Daeung-jeon Hall and the Geukrak-jeon Hall have corridors. At the time of the Japanese reconstruction, only the corridors seem to have existed in the floor plans around the Daeung-jeon Hall and the Museol-jeon Hall (which is located to the rear of the main hall).
There are numerous other discrepancies at Bulguksa Temple that were made during Japanese occupation that could probably have been set straight through further archaeological investigation, but without any original floor plans from the Joseon Dynasty, the Japanese did what they could and wanted to do. Other discrepancies include the location of the Geukrak-jeon Hall. According to the “Oriental Society” floor plans, this hall was originally the Wichuk-jeon Hall (The Invoking Blessings Hall). And the monk living quarters were located to the left and right of the Geukrak-jeon Hall. The Anyangmun Gate, which stands out in front of the Geukrak-jeon Hall, originally stood slightly in front of its current location.
As for the current configuration of Bulguksa Temple, two shrine halls seem to be absent from the “Oriental Society” floor plans. They are the Hyangro-jeon Hall (The Incense Burner Hall) and the Sipwang-jeon Hall (The Ten Kings of the Underworld Hall). It appears as though they probably existed on the current site of the Beophwa-jeon Hall (Lotus Sutra Hall).
There is a slight caveat to the Japanese efforts to restore Bulguksa Temple and the difficulty they had in reconstructing the temple to its former design. The caveat is this: there’s no way of knowing if what the Japanese did was true to the original floor plan. And the reason for this is that there is no way of knowing that the floor plan that the Japanese were working from was the original layout of the temple from its original creation by Kim Daeseong (700-774 A.D.) in the eighth century. It would appear that the original layout of the temple grounds had changed from the time of Kim Daeseong to when the Japanese authorities attempted to piece Bulguksa Temple back together again.The “Stupa of Bulguksa Temple” missing the capstone. (Picture courtesy of the National Museum of Korea). The “Stupa of Bulguksa Temple” with the capstone attached. (Picture courtesy of the National Museum of Korea).
As a bit of of an aside, one of the more interesting tales about Bulguksa Temple during Japanese Colonial Rule (1910-1945) concerns the “Stupa of Bulguksa Temple,” which is now located to the rear of the temple grounds next to the Biro-jeon Hall. This stupa was originally recorded in Dr. Sekino’s first report on Bulguksa Temple. However, the photograph from this report doesn’t show the capstone or upper part of the wheel-shaped finial. However, it later appears in the photos in an essay entitled “Cultural Relics of the Silla Dynasty in Korea’s Gyeongju,” which was published in volume one of “Toyo kyokai chosabu gakujutsu hokoku 1 – Academic Report of Investigations by the Oriental Society.” It’s unknown whether the capstone belonging to the stupa was later found nearby and attached or whether a capstone of similar size was roughly aligned and placed atop the stupa at the time of Sekino’s report.
More specifically, the “Stupa of Bulguksa Temple,” in 1905, was taken out of Korea and brought to Ueno Onshi Park in Tokyo by the Japanese. And it was owned by Nagao Kinya. However, this is only part of the story. According to the Korean newspaper, the Maeil Sinbo, someone from Kaesong (Gaeseong), convinced a monk at Bulguksa Temple to sell the stupa, which he did. The stupa was then transported to Tokyo by boat at night. The “Stupa of Bulguksa Temple” would eventually be returned to Korea in June, 1933.The Seokguram Grotto in 1922. (Picture courtesy of the National Museum of Korea). Seokguram Hermitage
The other major site that the Japanese focused on extensively in Gyeongju was Seokguram Hermitage and its grotto. With the annexation of Korea by the Japanese in 1910, the Governor-General of Chosen repair on Seokguram Hermitage began almost immediately. Seokguram Hermitage and its grotto was one of the main reasons that Gyeongju grew to such prominence. This is demonstrated by newspaper articles that applauded the stone hermitage.
In the past, Seokguram Hermitage, and specifically the famed grotto, had been used as a scenic spot for the yangban, a site for prayer by the Buddhist community, and a place to relax by commoners out for a hike or a picnic. However, at the end of the Joseon Dynasty (1392-1910), Seokguram Hermitage and its grotto had fallen into disrepair. It took the efforts of Japanese engineers employed by the Japanese Colonial government to repair Seokguram Hermitage. This started in 1913, and it took place over two years under the instruction of Governor-General Terauchi Masatake (1852-1919). However, with the Japanese repairing the Seokguram Grotto, the meaning behind its functionality changed from a religious one to one of aesthetic beauty as a piece of art.
In a poem-like essay, Asakawa Noritaka, who visited Seokguram Hermitage in 1921 and who was known for his research on Korean porcelain, wrote about the grotto. In his writing, he wrote about how the grotto awakened a certain sense of Toyo (the Orient/the Far East). Asakawa would go a step further by attempting to read the minds of the Silla people who originally built Seokguram Hermitage atop Mt. Tohamsan. According to Asakawa, Seokguram Hermitage was built so that the Buddha could protect sea travel between Silla and Nara, Japan. He also believed that there was a “unilinear flow of beauty” that was created by Tang China, continued in the Baekje Kingdom, migrated onward to the Silla Kingdom, and eventually arrived in Nara, Japan. The symbol and artistry found in the Seokguram Grotto, according to Asakawa, called for a revival of the great Orient. Asakawa would write, “Eternal Seokguram, you who speak the words of God/May the people of the Orient return to their homeland deep in your heart.”
So it seems rather obvious that the goal of Japan was twofold. The first was to allow the Seokguram Grotto to symbolically act as the pinnacle of Buddhist artistry, while also acting as a way to unify various nations within the purview of Japanese Colonial rule and expansion. The Japanese would disguise these motives in a couple of ways; namely, tourism and archaeologically, but the root of Japan’s efforts was to unify the colonial subjects under Japan’s colonial rule. But for this to take place, there were a few things that first needed to take place.
On September 20, 1923, about a month after further repair work was completed on the Seokguram Grotto, the Maeil Sinbo newspaper carried an article entitled, “Historic Remains in the Old City of Silla.” This article carried a picture of the grotto in it. The article would state that the Seokguram Grotto was “a collection of incomparable flowers of Oriental art.” In another newspaper, the Donga Ilbo, dated June 30, 1923, in a series entitled “Miracles of the World,” encouraged a sense of national pride in the supreme artistry found inside the grotto at Seokguram Hermitage. The newspaper would go on to state that the image of the Buddha inside the grotto was “the greatest of the oldest artworks in Asia.” The newspaper, by focusing on the Seokguram Grotto, was attempting to appeal to a sense of nationalism in the framework of a pan-Asian Buddhism.The central statue of Seokgamoni-bul (The Historical Buddha) inside Seokguram Grotto in 1922. (Picture courtesy of the National Museum of Korea).
Another way that the Japanese would use Seokguram Hermitage and its grotto was to transform the image of the Buddha from Buddhist rituals to that of a world class piece of artwork. Before the Seokguram Hermitage and its grotto was elevated, Japanese art historians were traveling throughout the capitals of western countries and their museums. In doing this, and viewing Christian art, the Japanese art historians would attempt to elevate historical Buddhist images from Buddhist ritual and make them artwork in their own aesthetic right much like what had happened to Christian art in western nations. Not long after this exploration and discovery, Western-style institutions such as exhibitions and art schools were open in Japan. Also, famous artisans of Buddhist images were hired as university professors. Then in 1873, at the Vienna World Exhibition, a large Buddha image from Kamakura was put on display. So as a result of the introduction of the Western concept of art, as introduced and influenced by the Japanese during Japanese Colonial Rule over the Korean Peninsula, this idea would transform and influence how the world and Koreans would view their Buddhist icons and images. And at the heart of this transformation was the Seokguram Hermitage and its grotto. This would start from the 1910’s.
The first attempted elevation of Seokguram Hermitage and its grotto beyond its religious iconography was taken by Yanagi Muneyoshi (1889-1950). In the publication “Geijutsu,” Yanagi wrote an article entitled “On the Sculptures of Seokguram,” which was published in June, 1919. Yanagi would state in this article about the Seokguram Grotto that it was “…not just the work of one country but a crystallization of the Buddhism of Sui and Tang China and of Oriental religion and art.” This quote squarely places Seokguram Hermitage and its grotto in a line of Buddhist artistry from China to Japan, as well as elevating and separating the Buddhist images from their original meaning rooted in Buddhism and attempting to elevate them as a piece of art.
This approach by Yanagi, and its indifference to how Seokguram Hermitage and its grotto had previously been experienced by Koreans, was secondary to the way that Japanese authorities now intended to interact with the icons inside Seokguram Grotto. This was very much of an attitude of the colonizer ruling the colonized. This approach highlighted the Japanese efforts to be the ultimate authority over the meaning and uses of Korean Buddhist icons through the interpretative-lense of Japanese Imperialism.
The way in which Yanagi is able to detach Buddhism from the Buddhist icon at Seokguram Hermitage and grotto is that he grounds the creation of the grotto in the individual mind of Kim Daeseong. By doing this, the statues inside the grotto first appears as an interpretative artwork that is only later grounded in Buddhism. This is a rather odd way to attempt to separate the religious from the religious statue, but it was something that Yanagi committed to and promoted. This is only one example of what the Japanese attempted to do with all Buddhist images in Korea and not just in Gyeongju or Seokguram Hermitage and its grotto.
This ideology by the Japanese was furthered by Inoue Tetsujiro (1855-1944), who was a Japanese religious studies scholar and a pioneer of comparative religions in Japan. He was quick to focus on what he thought of the connection found between India, China, Korea, and Japan. He believed that Buddhism was as great and universal a religion as Christianity in the West. In fact, Inoue believed that Buddhism wasn’t just equal to Christianity, but that it was in fact superior to Christianity in its Mahayana form and tradition.
So both Yanagi and Inoue were two leading scholars that attempted to put the stamp of Japanese Buddhism and scholarship on Korean Buddhism. Yanagi did this by reinterpreting Korean Buddhists icons as pieces of art, while Inoue was placing Korean Buddhism in the spectrum of Mahayana Buddhism from India, to China and Korea, and on to Japan. This spectrum would help, at least in the eyes of Japanese authorities, to unite, in part, the two people, Koreans and Japanese, into one.
After the discovery and the re-interpretation of Seokguram Hermitage and grotto by the Japanese, it quickly helped elevate Gyeongju as a tourist attraction for the Japanese, as well as Koreans, alongside Mt. Geumgangsan. As a result, it was quite common for Gyeongju to become a backdrop for Japanese writers and their experiences on the Korean Peninsula.The back wall relief of Gwanseeum-bosal in 1915 during Japanese renovations on Seokguram Grotto. (Picture courtesy of the National Museum of Korea).
Besides the central seated image of Seokgamoni-bul (The Historical Buddha) inside Seokguram Grotto, there is also the hidden relief of an eleven-faced image of Gwanseeum-bosal (The Bodhisattva of Compassion) directly to the rear of the central seated image of Seokgamoni-bul. People are only able to see this image of Gwanseeum-bosal if they are in fact inside the grotto because it’s obstructed from the front. With the discovery of the Seokguram Grotto by the Japanese, this image of Gwanseeum-bosal came to be admired as the image of Seokgamoni-bul. Examples of its prominent position can be found in Japanese language tourist books that were used for advertising the historic sites of Gyeongju. More specifically, three pictures of Seokguram Grotto were included in a deluxe book edited and published by the “Society for the Preservation of Historic Remains in Gyeongju.” And one of these three images was the image of Gwanseeum-bosal inside Seokguram Grotto. This picture was accompanied with the comment, “It’s carved in such an elegant and elaborate way as to tower over others in the grotto.”
In another publication published by the Japanese, which focused on a series of colonial historiography and archaeology, the image of Gwanseeum-bosal inside Seokguram Grotto appears, once more. This time, and along with an image of Gwanseeum-bosal, is an introduction about the image that reads, “…with the finest craft and the subtlest carving applied, it alone can speak for Buddhist art.”
However, not only did the Japanese have a fascination with Seokguram Hermitage and its grotto, but Koreans had a renewed sense of pride, as well. Gwon Deokgyu (1890-1950), who was a scholar of the Korean language, wrote an essay entitled “Gyeongju Bound,” where he is quoted as saying in this text, ‘‘I heard that Dr. Sekino explained that the Many Treasures Pagoda [Dabo-tap] of Bulguksa Temple, along with Seokguram Grotto, is ‘the ultimate treasure of the world.’” Gwon would continue, “…even possessing insufficient knowledge of architectural engineering, we became proud of ourselves. This derived from Dr. Sekino’s endless praise of the two monuments, saying they were both Korea’s treasure and the world’s at the same time.’’
This pride, not only in Seokguram Hermitage but in all of Gyeongju as the ancient capital of Silla, started with the preservation of Seokguram Hermitage. This preservation was reported by newly emerging Korean language print media as an administrative achievement of the Japanese authorities. More specifically, the “Society for the Preservation of Historic Remains in Gyeongju,” found by local officials in 1911, organized itself around a series of projects, including giving support to the Governor-General of Chosen’s repair work on Seokguram Hermitage and its grotto.
With this support for the Governor General of Chosen’s efforts on Seokguram Hermitage, the society was assigned the right to survey, preserve, and exhibit historical remains in Gyeongju with a specific focus on its connection with Silla. By doing this, the society was highlighting the Buddhist achievements of Silla at the expense of the one thousand years that followed both during the Goryeo and Joseon dynasties. The reason for this, rather coyly, was to help heighten the connection that the Japanese were attempting to form between the Japanese and Koreans through Buddhism. The society also took part in developing the historic remains of Gyeongju as a source of income for the tourist industry. This would help Korea gain some much needed revenue, while also helping to support the burgeoning war efforts in China, as well.The “Stone Brick Pagoda of Bunhwangsa Temple” in 1914. (Picture courtesy of the National Museum of Korea). Bunhwangsa Temple
Other than Bulguksa Temple and Seokguram Hermitage, another focus that the Japanese authorities took was on Bunhwangsa Temple. Japanese researchers, including Dr. Sekino, regarded the stone pagodas of Bulguksa Temple and Bunhwangsa Temple as particularly important Korean cultural assets.
With this in mind, Japanese authorities included Bunhwangsa Temple in a 1904 report that surveyed historic sites in Korea. Included in this report is a photograph of the “Stone Brick Pagoda of Bunhwangsa Temple,” which is the oldest pagoda in Gyeongju dating back to 634 A.D. In this picture, the pagoda appears with its base nearly collapsed and its capstone overgrown with weeds and covered in dirt.
One of the ways that the Japanese used photographs and conditions like this was through propaganda. And the way they did this was by juxtaposing images of dilapidated conditions in Korea before Japanese Colonial Rule (1910-1945) with a repaired and renovated image during Japanese Colonial Rule. One of the ways they specifically did this was in the “Chosen koseki zufu – Illustrated Record of Korean Relics.” In a 1916 photograph of the stone pagoda at Bunhwangsa Temple in this text, two photographs are placed together. One picture is of the neatly repaired pagoda, while the other was taken before Japanese repairs on the structure. The reason this was done was to show the world, including Japanese citizenry, Japan’s intention as a “guardian of civilization” and the “successor of the Eastern Spirit (Buddhism).”
However, while the Japanese did restore the “Stone Brick Pagoda of Bunhwangsa Temple,” it’s unclear whether the restoration was loyal to the original design of the pagoda at the time of its creation. While the Japanese specialist probably did save the stone pagoda from collapse, no one knows for sure whether they did a proper job because of a lack of information on the original pagoda’s design. There are two specific examples of this; first, the lion statues that appear on the four corners of the pagoda, were actually scattered around the temple grounds upon their re-discovery. The Japanese authorities then placed these four lions at the base of the pagoda, though it’s unclear if this was their original location. And another example is the foundational embankment that the base of the stone structure now rests upon. It’s unclear if this was the original configuration of the pagoda upon its creation. A lot was unknown, not only about Bunhwangsa Temple but about Gyeongju and its historic sites as a whole; and yet, the Japanese authorities persisted with their efforts.One of the four lions of the “Stone Brick Pagoda of Bunhwangsa Temple” that was scattered on the temple grounds. The picture is from 1918. (Picture courtesy of the National Museum of Korea). One of the four lions placed on the “Stone Brick Pagoda of Bunhwangsa Temple” after Japanese renovations on the pagoda. The specific date of the picture is unknown, but it was taken during Japanese Colonial Rule. (Picture courtesy of the National Museum of Korea). Historic Statues of Gyeongju 1. Stone Standing Buddha Triad in Bae-dong
Outside Bulguksa Temple, Seokguram Hermitage, and Bunhwangsa Temple, there are other historic sites in Gyeongju that were of interest to Japanese authorities, as well. One of these historic sites is the “Stone Standing Buddha Triad in Bae-dong.” Originally, this triad was located further up the mountain at the Seonbangsa-ji Temple Site. According to Sunkyung Kim’s paper, “Research on a Buddha Mountain in Colonial-Period Korea: A Preliminary Discussion,” Kim discusses how a Japanese man by the name of Osaka Kintaro first discovered the triad during Japanese Colonization (1910-1945). Osaka Kintaro was the principal of the Gyeongju public primary school, and upon his arrival in Gyeongju in 1915, Osaka Kintaro had heard rumours about a stone Buddha triad almost completely buried near Poseokjeong on the northwest part Mt. Namsan. However, it wasn’t until 1917 that Osaka Kintaro actually found it after using a local kid’s directions. Then in 1922, anticipating Prince Kotohito’s visit to Gyeongju, who was the Chief of the Imperial Japanese Army General Staff from 1931 to 1940, the “Society for the Preservation of Historical Remains of Gyeongju” wanted to move the triad to their exhibition room. The Society were a group of professionally trained archaeologists, ethnologists, anthropologists, and administrators from Japan, as well as local Koreans. Originally they were known as the “Silla Society.” However, because of the technological challenges of moving such large statues, they ended up leaving the triad where it was on Mt. Namsan.The “Stone Standing Buddha Triad in Bae-dong” now at Sambulsa Temple from 1924. (Picture courtesy of the National Museum of Korea).
When Osaka Kintaro later re-visited the triad, he described it in his book “Pastimes of Gyeongju.” Here he described how the locals of Mt. Namsan had started to stack small stones in front of the statue while making a wish. He would go on to describe how he believed that not only was the triad an active place of worship for the locals, but that the entire mountain of Mt. Namsan continued to be a place of worship for Koreans.
The first printed images of the “Stone Standing Buddha Triad in Bae-dong” appeared in the “Art of Korea’s Gyeongju – Chosen keishu no bijutsu” in 1929 by Nakamura Ryohei. Nakamura Ryohei was a teacher at Ulsan Public School. The photographs in this work show the triad in a similar layout to the present day configurations, while the photos in the “Buddhist Relics of Gyeongju’s Namsan – Keishu nanzan no busseki” from 1940 by the Governor General’s Office of Korea shows a Buddha triad that is collapsed and scattered. It’s unclear when this damage took place; however, judging by the fact that Moroga Hideo, who was a central figure in the “Society for the Preservation of Gyeongju Relics,” asked the Governor General Saito Makoto (1858-1936) for funds for the restoration of the “Stone Standing Buddha Triad in Bae-dong” in 1923, it can be confirmed that the restoration took place sometime between 1923 and 1929. And the subsequent positioning of the Bodhisattvas to the left and right of the central Buddha might have been designated at this time by the restorative conducted by the Japanese.The “Rock-Carved Buddhas at Chilbulam Hermitage in Namsan Mountain” before Japanese repairs. (Picture courtesy of the National Museum of Korea). And the “Rock-Carved Buddhas at Chilbulam Hermitage in Namsan Mountain” after repairs. (Picture courtesy of the National Museum of Korea). 2. Rock-Carved Buddhas at Chilbulam Hermitage in Namsan Mountain
Another example of a historic site outside the three major sites in Gyeongju for the Japanese authorities was Chilbulam Hermitage on Mt. Namsan. Much like Bunhwangsa Temple, Japanese authorities attempted to juxtapose the before and after images of the “Rock-Carved Buddhas at Chilbulam Hermitage in Namsan Mountain” in the “Illustrated Record of Korean Relics – Chosen koseki zufu” in 1917 with those found in the “Buddhist Relics of Gyeongju’s Namsan – Keishu nanzan no busseki” in 1940. The former photo shows the central Buddha image with a flat nose from years of wear. The latter photo, on the other hand, shows the damaged nose having been repaired. But not only has the nose been fixed, but the heavily damaged upper left part of the chest and arms have been repaired, as well. This is yet another example of how Japan was attempting to show that not only were they the “successor of the Eastern Spirit (Buddhism),” but that they were also attempting to be the guardians of Korean interests, as well.The “Stone Buddhas in Four Directions at Gulbulsa Temple Site” before Japanese repairs. (Picture courtesy of the National Museum of Korea). The “Stone Buddhas in Four Directions at Gulbulsa Temple Site” after repairs. (Picture courtesy of the National Museum of Korea). 3. Stone Buddhas in Four Directions at Gulbulsa Temple Site
Another example of restoration work conducted in Gyeongju was at the Gulbulsa-ji Temple Site on the “Stone Buddhas in Four Directions at Gulbulsa Temple Site.” The “Stone Buddhas in Four Directions at Gulbulsa Temple Site” was first photographed by the Japanese, and Dr. Sekino in particular, in 1904. At this time the stone Buddhas were almost completely buried in dirt on the foot of Baengnyulsa Temple. It was common for silt to wash down from the neighbouring mountain, so it easily accumulated around where the “Stone Buddhas in Four Directions at Gulbulsa Temple Site” was and is located.
With all this in mind, the “Stone Buddhas in Four Directions at Gulbulsa Temple Site” was already partially buried in dirt when the Japanese discovered it. Subsequently, the Japanese published two photographs of the stone Buddhas in 1910 in the “Overview of Korean Art – Chosen bijutsu taikan.” In these photos, the Buddhist sculpture is partial exposed after the removal of some of the surrounding dirt. Besides the upper part of the torso being exposed, the two photos also show the head of the Buddha and the crown of the Bodhisattvas on the left as being damaged. And the Bodhisattva to the right is simply absent from the two photos.
Later, and in the “Illustrated Record of Korean Relics – Chosen koseki zufu” of 1917, there is a photo of the Bodhisattva on the right standing with its upper body damaged. This implies that the “Stone Buddhas in Four Directions at Gulbulsa Temple Site” was restored to its present configuration sometime between 1910 and 1917. In addition to this work, the Japanese also built a stone embankment that was piled up behind the “Stone Buddhas in Four Directions at Gulbulsa Temple Site” to guard against dirt build-up. Once again, the Gulbulsa-ji Temple Site is another example of how Japan was attempting to show that not only were they the “successor of the Eastern Spirit (Buddhism),” but that they were also attempting to be the guardians of Korean interests, as well.The “Stone Seated Buddha in Yongjangsa-gok Valley of Namsan Mountain” before repairs by the Japanese. (Picture courtesy of the National Museum of Korea). The “Stone Seated Buddha in Yongjangsa-gok Valley of Namsan Mountain” after being reassembled by the Japanese. (Picture courtesy of the National Museum of Korea). 4. Stone Seated Buddha in Yongjangsa-gok Valley of Namsan Mountain
Yet another example of the work conducted in Gyeongju; and more specifically on Mt. Namsan, by the Japanese authorities can be found in the form of the Yongjangsa-ji Temple Site up the Yongjangsa-gok Valley. And particular attention was give to the “Stone Seated Buddha in Yongjangsa-gok Valley of Namsan Mountain” and it’s three-story pedestal on which a headless image of the Buddha rests. This pedestal was damaged up until the early 1920’s. On the stone wall behind the “Stone Seated Buddha in Yongjangsa-gok Valley of Namsan Mountain” is an inscription. This inscription states that the Governor-General of Chosen was ordered to reconstruct the three-story stone pagoda and pedestal that had already collapsed in the twelfth year of Taisho (1923). And the work done to restore the two objects, both the pagoda and pedestal, were completed the following year. However, the 1924 restoration couldn’t completely reproduce the original shape of the pedestal. The way in which the current “Stone Seated Buddha in Yongjangsa-gok Valley of Namsan Mountain” looks in its distinctive features was through the Japanese restoration. It’s believed that current form of the “Stone Seated Buddha in Yongjangsa-gok Valley of Namsan Mountain” was produced from several stones that had been piled up and scattered around the vicinity of the Japanese restoration that took place from 1923 to 1924.The “Stone Seated Buddha in Mireuk-gok Valley of Namsan Mountain” in 1923. (Picture courtesy of the National Museum of Korea). The “Stone Seated Buddha in Mireuk-gok Valley of Namsan Mountain” reassembled at Borisa Temple. (Picture courtesy of the National Museum of Korea). 5. Stone Seated Buddha in Mireuk-gok Valley of Namsan Mountain
In comparison to the extensive work done on the “Stone Seated Buddha in Yongjangsa-gok Valley of Namsan Mountain,” other Buddha statues on Mt. Namsan and Gyeongju were only partially repaired. As a result, only relatively minor modifications and repairs were conducted on these stone Buddhas like the “Stone Seated Buddha in Mireuk-gok Valley of Namsan Mountain” which is now located at Borisa Temple on the northeastern part of Mt. Namsan.
In photos from “Pastimes of Gyeongju – Shumi no keishu,” which was published in 1931 by Osaka Kintaro, who had first come to Korea in 1898, the photos of the “Stone Seated Buddha in Mireuk-gok Valley of Namsan Mountain” reveal that the seated stone Buddha was also not intact. Osaka worked as a part-time employee at the “Society for the Preservation of Gyeongju Relics” since 1915 and took a intense interest in the artifacts and historic sites in Gyeongju. Originally, this statue was located in Mireuk-gok Valley and not at Borisa Temple when Osaka took his photos. This was further supported by the report written by the “Society for Research on Korean Relics” in 1938. The statue was moved from its original location in Mireuk-gok Valley to flat ground on Borisa Temple.Conclusion
At the very heart of Japanese archaeological efforts in Korea; and more specifically, in Gyeongju, was the idea of preservation. And the reason for this preservation was threefold. The first was to help create a bond between the two people through a form of Pan-Asian Buddhism to combat Western influences. Another reason was to help raise capital for both Japan and Korea through tourism. For Korea, it would be to help the impoverished nation, while for Japan it was to help ongoing and future war efforts. And finally, the reason that Japan went to such great lengths to help preserve Korean cultural assets was to help civilize a nation in need of “modernizing” and “civilizing.”
There were various ways in which the Japanese went about this in Korea. Perhaps the most nationalistic was to prey upon the patriotic feelings of Korea. The way the Japanese did this was by pointing back to a time in Korea’s past where Buddhism helped unify and advance the nation as a whole. So the Japanese looked back to the Silla Kingdom, whose capital was located in Gyeongju, to help promote this ideology. The subsequent centuries of Joseon Dynasty rule had only helped to reverse these advancements, in the eyes of the Japanese. That’s why Gyeongju was so important to the propaganda that the Japanese authorities held during Japanese Colonial rule over the Korean Peninsula that helped to subjugate and make Koreans subjects of Imperial Japan.The Cheonwangsa-ji Temple Site in Gyeongju. The date is unknown, but the picture was taken during Japanese Colonial Rule. (Picture courtesy of the National Museum of Korea).
They are located in Gwanghwamun, Gangnam, Bundang, and even in Pyeongtaek.
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Best selection in korea for sure with over 400 whiskies and wine.변환KakaoTalk_20230514_154443937_04.jpg
Hello, I am an enthusiastic ESL teacher with a F6 Visa and more than 15 years teaching ESL and other foreign languages. I am currently looking for a morning, afternoon or evening part-time job. Do not hesitate to contact me if you are interested and I will send you a resume. I look forward to hearing from you. Best regards.
I am posting this ad on the behalf of a friend of mine who is a highly dedicated and experienced Russian native teacher who has been teaching children and adults at universities, high-schools and academies all over Busan for over 15 years.
She is a Korean citizen and she is looking for a Russian language teaching job.
Do not hesitate to contact her ([email protected]) or to send me a message with your offer if you are interested and she will contact you straight away.
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I'd like to give away some intermediate Korean textbooks. Both come with CDs in brand-new shape because - macbook air *sigh*. Meaning, I didn't have an opportunity to give them a listen.
What I Iove about TOPIK Master is the fact that in the appendix it provides a detailed breakdown for each question, explaining both why a certain answer is correct and why the rest are not. I hope it can be of help to anyone either preparing for the test or simply wishing to improve their Korean language ability!
The second book was purchased for an intermediate Korean class they teach in BFIC at City Hall. The classes cost 10.000 for a semester back when I attended it, and the only other extra purchase was this textbook.20230520_155223.jpg 20230520_155304.jpg 20230520_155339.jpg 20230520_155326.jpg 20230520_155436.jpg 20230520_155345.jpg 20230520_155407.jpg
Tim Hwang is the co-founder of FiscalNote, a global software, data, and media company in the US and he's the youngest Asian-American CEO of a public company. How was he able to build a multibillion company before even reaching the age of 30? Despite attending prestigious universities like Princeton and Harvard, Tim's story goes beyond privilege and showcases the true grit and determination required to build a company at scale.
In this episode, Tim shares his journey from being the son of Korean immigrants and the only Asian kid in a Michigan neighborhood to getting involved in US politics, including Obama's presidential campaign, and eventually achieving success as a CEO. Gain unique insights into the challenges he faced and the lessons he learned along the way.
0:00 - Intro
0:53 - Earning the title as youngest Asian-American CEO of a public company
2:32 - What was your childhood dream profession?
4:36 - Growing up as second-generation Korean American
24:16 - Being part of the Obama campaign at the age of 15
37:31 - What’s your company FiscalNote about?
43:47 - Struggles of starting a company
58:26 - Hiring the right people
1:14:22 - Biggest mistakes in building the company
1:18:53 - How big did FiscalNote become?
1:22:37 - How has your role as CEO changed after going public?
1:25:31 - How did your parents react to the success of your company?
1:26:42 - Why haven’t you retired yet even if you could?
1:28:57 - Sacrifices made in your 20s to build your company?
1:31:09 - Do you want to go back into politics?
1:33:56 - State of the American and global divisiveness
1:39:45 - Asian-American representation in the US
1:44:08 - What kind of impact do you want achieve in the next 10 years?
1:46:37 - Advice to young people seeking their path
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I'm having my third fan meetup in Korea! I made a video announcing the location, date, and time for the event. If you're currently in Korea (or will be during the fan meetup) I'd love to see you there! There's a link to RSVP in the video description.
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I am a 29-year-old guy who truly wants to improve my English and I'm looking for a language exchange partner.
For just an hour, at a cafe or library, wherever possible, we can casually talk or ask each other questions about anything in both languages.
It doesn't matter how old or what gender you are..If you're interested, please kindly email me.
Before contacting me, please consider the followings.
I have a Gyeongsang-do accent.
Not a professional Korean teacher nor do I have a degree in Korean.
It would be much better if you can speak even a little bit of Korean to have a conversation.
So, if you're looking for someone who can teach you standard/academic Korean. I may not be the best option.
Please don't hesitate to contact me if you have any questions.